30271 Eve DeAngelis January 10, 2014.docx

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Earth & Environmental Sciences
ENVR 1104
Malcolm D Hill

1 1/10/14 Natural Disasters and Catastrophes ENVR 1104 CRN: 30271 Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazards • Earth’s composition: o Core= metallic center (mainly iron and nickel) the heat from the core helps to drive interior processes o Mantle= composed of rocks rich in the elements Fe, Mg, and Ca  “ultramafic” rocks, with “ma” = Magnesium and “f” for Iron, or Fe o Crust= thin outer layer composed of many types o Oceanic crust= primarily basalt rock  Basalt= “mafic” magma (rich in Fe, Mg, Ca) and the rock that forms from cooling of basalt magma is denser than continental crust… this in part explains why oceanic crust is pulled more forcefully by gravity than continental rocks- causing it to sink lower, and fill with water o Heat flows by conduction, convection, or radiation- from warm to cool, so heat moves from the earth’s interior to the surface o Deeper in earths composition= greater pressure • Lithosphere/asthenosphere: o Plates can move temperatures are hot enough the mantle so it behaves in a plastic manner o Rock shallower than 100 km. deep is cold and brittle – it can break if you store too much energy in an area near a fault o Lithosphere= outer 100-200 km of the earth- cold, rigid, brittle rock- all of the crust of the earth o Asthenosphere= part of the mantle- behaves in a plastic manner only a few 100 km’s thick; pressure here increases w/ depth , and eventually the rock stops behaving in a plastic manner • Plate movement: o Eurasian plate, Indian-Australian plate, Pacific plate, Nazca plate, North American plate, Caribbean plate, South American plate, African 2 plate, and Antarctic plate all move at different velocities o Divergent Boundaries:  Basalt magma is formed in the mantle of the earth, it ascends in diverging plate boundaries; ongoing erupt
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