POLI SCI 351 Chapter 2.2: POLITICS LECTURE 2 READING-2

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LECTURE 2 READINGS: COLONIALISM, NATIONALISM AND
INDEPENDENCE
SAUDI ARABIA:
- Up until the 1940s, Saudi Arabia was basically a confederation of tribes and
small towns on the coast or built around oases
- In the early 20th century, the Saud family looked to re-establish dominance
in the peninsula - once they got the backing of the British, they proclaimed
the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, with a powerful Saud, Abdul al-Aziz
ibn king.
- Only country in the world named after a family
- Oil was discovered in the mid 1930s and after WWII U.S oil companies got
involved flowing it out of Saudi Arabia
- ARAMCO (Arabian American Oil Comapny) was a joint venture of
American companies that forged a close relationship with Saudi rulers
by giving them lots of money and building up their modern state for
them in exchange for their oil.
EGYPT:
- Coming out of WWII, many Egyptians are not happy with the status of the
country - the “liberal era” of the past decades was viewed as largely
unsuccessful because of the landlessness among peasants, and lack of
education and opportunity for Egyptians
- On top of this, the king was losing support to a growing sense of nationalist
resentment (largely military) toward the monarch b/c of his lack of support
to Palestine against Israel and the continued presence of Britain in the Suez
canal (one of the most important shipping ways in the world between the
Red Sea and the Mediterranean)
- 1952 - Military coup that topples the Egyptian monarchy by the so-called
Free Officers who set up a Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) as
the main governing institution -- the country was now ruled by the military
and especially one Liutenant - Colonal Gamal Abdel Nasser b
- Nasser’s politics - Nasserism
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