POLI SCI 351 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3.2: Authoritarianism, National Liberation Front (Algeria), Nepotism
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- We’re looking at the “founding regimes” in the Middle East - the first
post-colonial regimes. Countries can be sorted into three basic categories:
single-party dictatorships, monarchical dictatorships, and democratic
- 1. Single-Party Systems
- EX: Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia and South Yemen
- Republics ruled in dictatorship fashion by presidents, who, in most
cases, hailed from militaries (whose support was critical); ruling
parties served President in their exercise of power.
- Parties were massive. Structured “elections” so that ruling parties won
either all or vast majority of parliamentary seats.
- Adopted a state socialist economic development agenda.
- Nationalized industries
- Implemented land reform
- Wanted to built a thriving economic base to augment national
- Also subscribed to pan-Arab nationalism that Nasser articulated -
West was at fault for dividing Arabs into artificial states
- Broad - the brutal colonial period (1830) and the War of liberation (1954 -
1962) are still determining factors of national identity; nationalist movement
in 1920s instituted political system with far-reaching affects
- Historical Background and Contemporary Political Structure
- Arab-Islamic culture in Algeria has a huge impact on Algerian culture
- French colonization was devastating - uprooted entire populations,
dispossessed farmers of lands, transformed mosques into charges