BIOL 240M Chapter Notes - Chapter 41: Chemical Energy, Dna Replication, Sodium Chloride

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6 Feb 2017
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Ch. 41 Animal Nutrition
I. An animal's diet must supply chemical energy, organic molecules, and
essential nutrients
a. Adequate diet satisfies 3 nutritional needs
i. Chemical energy for cellular processes
1. Used to produce ATP for anything from DNA replication
to vision and flight
2. Ingests and digests nutrients including carbohydrates,
proteins, and lipids
ii. Organic building blocks for macromolecules
iii. Essential nutrients
b. Essential Nutrients preassembled organic molecules and minerals
i. Essential Amino Acids
1. Most animals can synthesize about 10 of the 20 amino
acids to make proteins; the rest are obtained by food in
prefabricated form and are essential amino acids
2. Proteins in animal products are complete, they provide
all essential amino acids in proper proportions
ii. Essential Fatty Acids
1. Used for membrane phospholipids, signaling molecules,
and storage fats
2. Unable to form double bonds in fatty acids; those
obtained are essential fatty acids
a. Seeds, grains, and vegetables
iii. Vitamins
1. Organic molecules that are required in the diet in very
small amounts, with diverse functions
a. Classified as water-soluble or fat-soluble
iv. Minerals
1. Inorganic nutrients required in small amounts
a. Some assembled into structure of proteins (Fe in
hemoglobin)(Na, K, Cl in nerves and muscles)(Ca
and P for building and maintaining bone)
b. Too much, NaCl for example, has adverse effects,
HTN
c. Dietary Deficiencies
1. Malnutrition a diet that lacks one or more essential
nutrients or consistently supplies less chemical energy
than the body requires 1:4 children worldwide
1. Deficiencies in Essential Nutrients
a. Deformities, disease, or even death
b. Less protein can mean decreased physical and
mental development, especially in children
2. Undernutrition a diet that fails to provide adequate
sources of chemical energy
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