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United States (206,040)
Psychology (295)
01:830:340 (47)
Chapter 13


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Sara Campbell

CHAPTER 13 DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS- 526 COMMON DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS ■ childhood disorder term is misleading because often extends into adulthood ■ development is a sequential process therefore the disruption of development of early skills will disrupt development of later skills ■ some people in the field may see aspects of normal development as abnormal ○ ex. echolalia- repeating the speech of others once thought to be a sign of autism, now known that this is a step in language development ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER- features maladaptive levels of inattention, excessive activity, and impulsiveness; one of the most common reasons children are treated A. clinical description ■ display motor hyperactivity and are fidgety ■ act without thinking ■ DSM criteria ○ problems of inattention ○ hyperactivity ○ impulsivity ○ the first or both second and third symptoms must be present for someone to be diagnosed with ADHD ■ study showed that girls with ADHD were likely to be rejected to their peers, even more so for the ADHD girls with the hyperactivity and impulsivity type B. statistics ■ occurs in 3-7% of children in the us and 5.2% of children around the world ■ boys are three times as likely to be diagnosed ■ first identified as different from their peers at age 3 or 4 ■ half of children with ADHD have problems going into adulthood ■ inattention persists into adulthood ■ teens are more likely to get into an accident and contract and STD and girls are more likely to get pregnant ■ oppositional defiant disorder overlaps with ADHD (half of cases), as well as conduct disorder and bipolar disorder C. causes ■ genetic relationship- more likely to have disorder if have family history of ADHD or history of psychopathology in general ■ large influence by genetics and small influence by the environment ■ NT dopamine is mostly associated ■ ritalin (methylphenidate)- increases the amount of dopamine available ■ study found that in children with a mutation of the dopamine system they developed ADHD if their mothers smoked during pregnancy ■ overall volume of the brain is slightly smaller 3-4% than in those without the disorder ■ feingold- related ADHD to be caused by food additives and chemicals put into foods ■ negative self image D. treatment ■ biological- reduce impulsivity and improve attention skills ■ psychological- improve academics, decrease disruptive behavior, and improve social skills ■ more than 2.5 million children in us are being treated with stimulants ○ improves 70% of cases ■ stimulant medications pose potential for abuse ■ antidepressants and drugs for high blood pressure also seem to be effective ■ medications improve their attention but do not improve academics or relationships therefore other intervention is needed E. helpful designer drugs ■ psychopharmacogenetics- study of how your genetic makeup influences your response to certain drugs ■ medications are designed for individuals to meet their needs ■ tries to eliminate guess work in trying drugs ■ ethical concerns- will these people who go through genetic screening be discriminated against if go to apply for job etc F. evaluating treatment ■ study by the national institute of mental health showed that treatment with medication alone and medication and behavioral treatment was more effective than behavioral treatment alone LEARNING DISORDERS- reading mathematics or written expression performance substantially below the level expected relative to the persons age, iq score, and education A. clinical description ■ reading disorder ■ mathematics disorder ■ disorder of written expression ■ response to intervention- B. statistics ■ 5-10% ■ diagnosis increases in wealthier regions of the country- better access to treatment means more are identified ■ more than 6 million children in the US ■ no racial differences ■ reading disorders are the most common ■ verbal or communication disorders are closely related to learning disorder ■ shuttering- disruption in the fluency and time patterning of speech ■ expressive language disorder- problems in spoken communication, measured by low scores on standardized tests of expressive language related to nonverbal intelligence test scores, limited vocabulary ■ selective mutism- failure to speak in specific social situations despite speaking in other situations ■ tic disorder- involuntary motor movements or verbalization C. causes ■ genetic influence- genes that affect learning but not specifically math or language ■ dyslexia ○ brocas area ○ parietotemporal area ○ occipitotemporal area ■ intraparietal sulcus- mathematics disorder D. treatment ■ drug treatment is restricted to individuals who may also have ADHD treatment is primarily an educational intervention ■ uses specific skill instruction and strategy instruction ■ direct instruction ○ systematic instruction- uses lessen plans to place children in groups based on their progress ○ teach for mastery- teaching students until they understand all concepts ○ seen to improve education for those with learning disorders ○ study used an fMRI to see how children with and without reading difficulties processed simple tasks- after 8 weeks of a computer program that helped them work on their language and auditory processing skills their brains almost functioned similar to their peers ○ behavioral interventions can change the way the brain works and help treat learning disorders PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER- wide ranging, significant, long lasting dysfunction that appears before the age 18, experience problems with language, socialization, and cognition I. autistic disorder- characterized by significant impairment in social interactions and communications and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, and activity A. clinical description- three major characteristics: impairment in social interactions, impairment in communication, and restricted behavior, interests, and activities ■ impairment in social interactions ○ when with a parent and a toy young children will look back and forth between the two because they want to engage with the parent and play with the toy but this is absent in children with autism ○ are not interested in relationships and do not have ability to develop them ■ impairment in communication ○ one third never acquire speech ○ unable and unwilling to carry out conversation ○ communication is unusual ■ restricted behavior interest and activity ○ maintenance of sameness- do not like change ○ spend hours doing stereotyped and ritualistic behaviors- spinning in circles, biting hands, waving hands B. statistics ■ has increased in prevalence, 2-20 per 10,000 people ■ 1 in 500 births ■ increase may be because of increase awareness ■ gender difference depend on IQ ○ for IQ lower than 35 more common in females ○ for IQ higher than 35 more common in males ■ present in all countries ■ 45-60% of people with autism have above average IQ scores and IQ range varies greatly ■ those with higher IQ need less help from others and in addition to language skills are a good predictor of how child will do later in life with disorder C. causes: psychological and social dimension ■ historically has been seen as a result of failed parenting ■ theory on lack of use of first person pronouns (I, me, my)- autism involves lack of self awareness and experience ○ found that this is not the cause of autism itself and that other children without the disorder have it too ■ characteristics portrayed in movies like rain man whose characters have savant skills is not really true ■ sical deficiencies is the preliminary defining characteristic of the disorder D. causes: biological dimension ■ genetic influences ○ families with an autistic child have a 5-10% chance of having another autistic child ○ genes responsible for brain chemical oxytocin- role to how we bond to others and our social memory ■ neurobiological influences ○ amygdala- emotions of anxiety and fear, study showed that this structure is the same size as normal people but they have less neurons however children with autism actually have a larger amygdala causing excessive anxiety and fear in childhood and with release of stress cortisol damages the amygdala and accounts for the differences in social interactions ○ neuropeptide oxytocin- increases trust and reduces fear, have lower levels in their blood and giving oxytocin improved their ability to remember and process information with emotion ○ controversial theory of mercury causing autism - study show that there was no increased risk of children who were vaccinated with vaccines preserved with mercury II. aspergers disorder- characterized by impairments in social relationships, and restricted or unusual behaviors but without language dela
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