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Chapter 9

NUTR 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, High-Density Lipoprotein, Low-Density Lipoprotein

Foods And Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 201

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Chapter 9 Physical Activity and Health
What are the Health Benefits of Physical Activity
Physical activity helps reduce a person’s risk for obesity and certain chronic diseases such as
stroke, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and some forms of cancer
Physical Activity Improves Health and Physical Fitness
o Physical activity includes day-to-day and leisure-time activities
o Exercise planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or
maintain physical fitness
o Physical fitness the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness and to
perform leisure-time pursuits without undue fatigue
o Weight management: regular physical activity helps to increase muscle mass and
decrease body fat,
It increases energy expenditure and improves appetite regulation
o Prevention of High Blood Pressure: physical activity can improve cardiovascular
function, which in turn can help control and reduce blood pressure in hypertensive
o Decreased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease:
Physical activity can strengthen the heart muscle, lower resting heart rate, and
improve blood lipids by decreasing triglyceride and LDL cholesterol and
increasing HDL cholesterol
These changes help slow the progression of atherosclerosis, maintain healthy
blood pressure and assist the heart to function more efficiently
o Reduced Risk of Cancer:
Decreases a person’s risk of developing colon, lung, endometrial, and breast
o Decreased Back Pain:
Exercise can increase muscle strength, endurance, flexibility, and overall posture,
which prevent injuries and alleviate back pain associated with muscle strain
o Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes:
Regular physical activity can help decrease blood glucose, insulin resistance, and
long-term health complications
Physical activity helps maintain a healthy body weight
o Optimized Bone Health
Weight bearing physical activity can stimulate bone formation and slow the
progression of age-related bone loss
o Enhanced Self-Esteem, Stress Management, and Quality of Sleep
Physical activity helps reduce depression and anxiety, which in turn can improve
Regular physical activity provides a positive and effective means to manage
stress, and it can improve mood and promote restful sleep
o Physical Activity Recommendations
The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans stress the importance of
regular physical activity and recommend that adults get at least 150 minutes a
week of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity by aerobic
physical activity
It is also recommended that every adult engage in resistance training two to three
days each week
Five Components of Physical Fitness
o Cardiovascular fitness the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply
oxygen and nutrients to working muscles during sustained physical activity
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o Muscular strength the maximal force exerted by muscles during an activity
o Resistance training physical activities that, using weights or other methods of physical
resistance, overload specific groups of muscles to make them work harder
o Muscle endurance ability to exercise for an extended period of time without becoming
o Flexibility range of motion around a joint
o Body composition the proportion of fat tissue and fat-free tissue in the body
Getting “Fitt” Involves Frequency, Intensity, Type, and Time
o FITT principle a method of planning a physical fitness program that considers
frequency, intensity, type, and time spent exercising each week
o Frequency of Physical Activity
Frequency component of the FITT principle that addresses how often a person
Sedentary people should start gradually (no more than two workouts per week)
To achieve muscular strength, only two to three workouts per week of resistance
activities are necessary
o Intensity of Physical Activity
Intensity component of the FITT principle that refers to the amount of physical
exertion expended during physical activity
The intensity of physical activities is typically classified as low, moderate, or
vigorous, depending on how hard your body is working
Determining Exercise Intensity
Talk test a method used to judge the intensity level of workouts by
assessing a person’s ability to converse while exercising
Maximum heart rate estimated by subtracting age from 220 (220
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For moderate intensity, the CDC recommends that people stay between
50-70% heart rate
Target heart rate that needed to achieve a desired activity intensity; 50-
70% and 70-85% of maximum heart rate are often used as targets for
moderate- and vigorous-level intensities, respectively
Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion self-monitoring of the body’s
response to physical activity based on changes in heart rate, breathing rate,
sweating, and muscle fatigue
As exercise intensity increases, there is an increase in oxygen
consumption until a steady state is reached
o Type of Activity
To improve cardiovascular fitness, the movement should be rhythmic and
continuous, while gradually increasing intensity
o Walking
o Cycling
o Swimming
o Hiking
o Cross-country skiing
o Dancing
o Time of Activity
Time of activity refers to how long the physical activity lasts, and is only
applicable to aerobic activities
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends 30 minutes of moderate-
intensity physical activity on at least 5 days/week to a total of at least 150 minutes
each week
Individuals can strive for 20-25 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity on
at least 3 days/week to a total of at least 75 minutes each week
It is important to remember that exercising too frequently or too intensely can
lead to injuries
How Does Physical Activity Impact Energy Metabolism?
On average, a person expends approximately 15-30% of his or her total daily energy intake on
physical activity
o Percentage is higher for people who exercise
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