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Chapter 1

NUTR 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Nutrient, Inorganic Compound, Biological Engineering


Department
Foods And Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 201
Professor
Ferraro
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1 The Science of Nutrition
What Do We Mean By “Nutrition?”
Nutrition the science of how living organisms obtain and use food to support processes
required for life
Nutritional sciences a person who conducts and/or evaluates nutrition-related research
Dietitian: a nutritionist who helps people make healthy diet choices
Nutrients Support All We Do
o Nutrients a substance in foods used by the body for energy, maintenance of body
structures, or regulation of chemical processes
Example: Carbohydrates supply energy to fuel your body’s activities
Foods Contain Nutrients and Nonnutrients
o Scientists classify nutrients into 6 categories based on their chemical structure and
composition
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Water
Vitamins & minerals
o Essential, Nonessential, and Conditionally Essential Nutrients
Essential nutrients a substance that must be obtained from the diet because the
body needs it and cannot make it in required amounts
Nonessential nutrient a substance found in food and used by the body to
promote health, but not required to be consumed in the diet
Conditionally essential nutrient normally nonessential nutrient that, under
certain circumstances, becomes essential
o Macronutrients vs. Micronutrients
Macronutrient nutrients that we need to consume in relatively large quantities
(>1 g/day)
Micronutrient nutrients that we need to consume in relatively small quantities
(<1 g/day)
Example: a typical adult requires over a lifetime:
2726 lbs of macronutrient, protein
0.3 lbs of micronutrient, iron
Organic Nutrients are Different from Organic Foods
o Organic compound a substance that contains C-C bonds or C-H bonds
o Inorganic compound a substance that does not contain C-C bonds or C-H bonds
o Certified organic foods plant and animal foods that have been grown, harvested, and
processed without conventional pesticides, fertilizers, growth promoters, bioengineering
or ionizing radiation
Example: a farmer cannot use conventional pesticides and herbicides on
organically grown crops
Phytochemicals, Zoonutrients, and Functional Foods
o Phytochemicals: Beneficial Substances From Plant Foods
Phytochemicals a substance found in plants and thought to benefit human health
above and beyond the provision of essential nutrients and energy
Example: Grapes and wine contain phytochemicals that may reduce the
risk of heart disease (Health Claim)
o Zoonutrient: Beneficial Substances From Animal Foods
Zoonutrient a substance found in animal foods and thought to benefit human
health above and beyond the provision of essential nutrients and energy
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Example: nonessential lipids found in fish and dairy products (thought to
decrease risk of heart disease)
o Functional Foods May Offer Important Health Benefits
Functional food a food that contains enhanced levels of an essential nutrient,
phytochemical, or zoonutrient and thought to benefit human health
Example: Soy milk contains phytochemicals thought to decrease risk for
some cancers
What are the Major Nutrient Classes?
Nutrients are needed to provide structure, regulate chemical reactions (metabolism), and supply
energy
Carbohydrates are Vital for Energy and Regulatory Roles
o Glucose is the most important carbohydrate because it is the primary source of energy
o Dietary fiber play roles in maintaining the health of your digestive system
May help decrease your risk of certain conditions, such as heart disease and Type
II Diabetes
o Carbohydrates are important structural and regulatory components of the cell membranes
Proteins Make Up Muscles and are Important for Energy and Regulations
o Protein is abundant in meat, legumes, and some cereal products
o Proteins have numerous roles including:
Source of energy
Important for structure of cell membranes
Needed for the nervous and reproductive systems to function properly
Regulating a variety of cellular processes
Water is the Essence of Life Itself
o Water makes up about 60% of your total body weight
o The functions of water vary and are vital:
Transport of nutrients, gases, and waste products
Serving as a medium in which chemical reactions occur
Involvement in many chemical reactions
Regulating body temperature
Protecting internal organs from damage
Vitamins Regulate Reactions and Promote Growth
o Vitamins are abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains
o Vitamins are needed to regulate chemical reactions and promote growth and development
o Antioxidants are vitamins that protect the body from the damaging effects of toxic
compounds
o Vitamins play important roles in chemical processes required for building and
maintaining tissue
o Vitamins can be classified based on how they interact with water
Water soluble or fat soluble
Minerals Provide Structure and Assist with Regulation
o Minerals are inorganic substances that occur naturally in the earth
o Minerals are not used directly for energy, but many are involved in energy-producing
reactions
How Do Foods Provide Energy?
Energy the capacity to do work
o Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids contain chemical energy
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a chemical used by the body to perform work
o Example: the energy in ATP allows your muscles to move
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