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Psychology (17)
PSYC 001 (15)
Greg Feist (13)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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PSYC 001
Greg Feist

personality - unique and relatively enduring set of behaviors, feelings, thoughts, and motives that characterize an individual ● what distinguishes us from one another ● relatively enduring; consistent trait - disposition to behave consistently in a particular way ● theory > major force of personality ● shared and unshared environment + error = nongenetic trait sources behavioral thresholds - point where one moves from not having particular response to having one ● low = very likely to behave in a particular way ● high = unlikely Biological/evolutionary model ● inherited personality ● Evolution of personality traits ○ traits = adaptive responses to environment ■ i.e. anxiety/fear ● Genetics of personality ○ About 50% of personality traits are genetically influenced ■ on average, 50% is environment ○ shared environment = w/ family ○ non-shared “ “ = friends, teachers, etc. ● temperament and the fetal environment Behavioral genetic research methods ● quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach - looking for location of specific DNAbit on genes that might be associated w/ particular behaviors ● study of twins: ○ both identical and fraternal, raised together or apart ○ most personality traits have 40-60% heritability estimates ○ ● unconscious - contains all drives, urges, or instincts outside awareness but nonetheless motivate most speech, thoughts, feelings, or actions. ● unconscious forces motivate mind human mind = 3 distinct “provinces”/regions that control & regulate impulses ● id - first province ○ seat of impulse and desire ■ function: seeks pleasure ■ operates on “do it” principle ○ part of personality that we don’t own yet ■ it controls us ○ Overly impulsive and pleasure-seeking = no control ● ego - sense of self ○ only part in direct contact w/ outside world ○ operates on “reality” principle ■ id’s pleasure = ego’s realistic acquisition attempt ○ mediates conflict b/t impulse and control ● superego - part of self monitoring and controlling behavior ○ “stands over us” - evaluates actions in terms of right and wrong ■ is our conscience ■ operates on “moralistic principle” ■ gives sense of what we should and shouldn’t do ○ control center of personality ■ frequently stops id’s impulses ○ exaggerated superego = overly controlling and impulse-repressing ● In healthy person ○ ego mediates conflict b/t impulse & control ■ Freud believes most are id-driven ● others are superego-driven ○ healthiest = most developed ego & can control realistically & healthily ● defense mechanisms - mind protects itself from harm, threats, and anxiety-provoking thoughts, feelings, or impulses ○ Operate unconsciously ○ Deny and distort reality in some way ■ repression - underlies all mechanisms ● unconscious act of keeping threatening/disturbing thoughts, feelings, impulses out of consciousness ■ reaction formation - when an unpleasant idea, feeling, or impulse is turned into its opposite ■ projection - people deny and repress their particular ideas, feelings, or impulses, and project them onto others ■ sublimation - expressing socially unacceptable impulse in a socially acceptable/desirable way AlfredAlder: Freud’s colleague who disagreed with major motives underlying behavior ● striving for superiority - humans naturally strive to overcome inferiorities/deficiencies ○ vs. Freud: not sex or aggression ○ major drive behind behavior ○ compensation - all people strive for growth & completion as they grow up. They attempt to compensate for feelings of weakness of inferiority. ■ some develop unhealthy need to dominate or upstage others as compensation for feelings of inferiority ● develop inferiority complex ● birth order Carl Jung: ● only children = can be mature but have superiority complex personal unconscious - consists of all repressed and hidden thoughts, feelings, and motives collective unconscious - consists of shared experiences of ancestors archetypes - ancient/archaic images resultant from common ancestral experiences shadow - dark and morally objectionable part of ourselves anima - female part of male personality animus - male part of female personality Karen Horney - ● neurotically ○ moving toward (complia
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