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PSY 205 (46)
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Chapter 7

PSY 205 Chapter 7.docx

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PSY 205

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Chapter 7 • Tip of the tongue phenomenon: forgotten information feels like it’s just out of reach. • Encoding: forming a memory code • Storage: maintaining encoded information in memory over time • Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores • Attention: focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events • Structural encoding: emphasizes what a word sounds like • Semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input • Craik and Lockhart’s levels of processing theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes • Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding • Imagery potential: • High high: juggler-dress • High low: letter effort • Low high: duty hotel • Low low: quality necessity • Self referent encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant • Motivation to remember: time of encoding • Sensory memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of second • Short term memory: limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 10-20 seconds • Rehearsal: process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information • Chunk: group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit • Phonological loop: represent all of short term memory • Visuospatial sketchpad: permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images • Central executive system: controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed • Episodic buffer: temporary, limited capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information • Working memory capacity: one’s ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention • Long term memory: unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time • Flashbulb memories: unusually vivid and detailed recollections of the circumstances in which people learned about momentous, newsworthy events • Conceptual hierarchy: multilevel classification system based on common properties among items • Schema: organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event • Tuckey & Brewer: suggest that people are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not. • Inverse: people sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schema-based expectations. • Semantic network: consist of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts • Connectionist models of memory: take their inspiration from how neural networks appear to handle information • Parallel distributed processing: simultaneous processing of the same information that is spread across networks of neurons • Connectionist or parallel distributed processing models: assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational network that resemble neural networks • PDP models: assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks • Tip of the tongue phenomenon: temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach • Retrieval cues: stimuli that help gain access to memories • Misinformation effect: shown that reconstructive distortions show up frequently in eye witness testimony. Occurs when participants’ recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post event information • Reality monitoring: refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one’s perception of actual events) or internal sources (one’s though
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