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Chapter 13

PSY 205 Chapter 13.docx

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PSY 205

Chapter 13 • Social psychology: branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others. • Person perception: process of forming impressions of others • Stereotypes: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group. • Illusory correlation: occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen • Ingroup: a group that one belongs to and identifies with. • Outgroup: group that one does not belong to or identify with • Attributions: inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and their own behavior • Internal attributions: ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints • Fundamental attribution error: refers to observers’ bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior • Defensive attribution: tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way. • Individualism: involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships. • Collectivism: involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups on belongs to. • Interpersonal attraction: refers to positive feelings toward another. • Matching hypothesis: proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners. • Passionate love: complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion. • Compassionate love: warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own. • Attitudes: positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought. • Explicit attitudes: attitudes that we hold consciously and can readily describe. • Implicit attitudes: covert attitudes that are expressed in subtle automatic responses that people have little co
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