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Chapter 1-3

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PSY 205

Chapter 1 Psychology: Two Greek words “Psyche”: Soul and “Logos”: Study of a subject Science that studies behavior +physiological +cognitive processes that underlie it, and it’s the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems • Second most popular undergrad major, 10% doctoral degrees th • Not until 18 century did the term psychology gain more than rare usage • Acquired meaning “the study of the mind” • Psychology’s intellectual parents were philosophy and physiology • William Wundt: Campaign make psychology an independent discipline • 1879: Wundt established first formal lab at University of Leipzig. Declared new psychology modeled after fields physics +chemistry • 1879: Birth of psychology • Became scientific study of conscious experience • G. Stanley Hall: series of “firsts” forAmerican Psychology, establishes first research lab at JHU, first psychology journal, driving force behind establishmentAPAand its first prez • Psychology, first two major schools of thought: Structuralism + functionalism • Structuralism: Edward Titchener, based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. “sensation, feelings, images” • Functionalism: William James, Based on belief that psychology should investigate the function/purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure • William James, “Principles of Psychology”-standard reading for generations of psychology, most influential text in the history of psychology • Introspection: Careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience • Natural selection: Heritable characteristics that provide a survival/reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time • Stream of consciousness: James wanted to understand the flow itself • James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey began to investigate mental testing, patterns development in children, effectiveness educational practice, behavioral differences b/w sexes • Functionalism fostered development of: Behaviorism +applied psychology • Psychoanalysis: Treat people troubled by psychosocial problems • Unconscious: Contains thoughts, memories, desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior • Slips of the tongue: reveal a person’s true feelings • Psychoanalytic theory: Attempts to explain personality, motivation, mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior • John Watson: Behaviorism: theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior • Watson proposed psychologists abandon study of consciousness altogether +focus exclusively on behaviors that they could observe directly • Behavior: any observable response/activity by an organism • B.F. Skinner: Emphasized how environmental factors mold behavior • Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral/negative outcomes • Skinner: “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”: all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli • People are controlled by their environment, free will is an illusion • Humanism: Theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth 6 Perspectives in Psychology • Behavioral: Effects of environment on overt behavior of humans +animals • Psychoanalytic: Unconscious determinants of behavior • Humanistic: Unique aspects of human experience • Cognitive: Thoughts, mental processes • Biological/neuroscience: Physiological bases of behavior in humans +animals • Evolutionary: Evolutionary bases of behavior in humans +animal • • Carl Rogers: argued that human behavior is governed primarily by each individual’s sense of self/self-concept • Rogers pioneered new approach to psychotherapy: person-centered therapy • Applied psychology: concerned with everyday, practical problems • Clinical psychology: concerned w/ diagnosis +treatment psychological problem +disorders • Cognition: mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge • Jean Piaget: Focused increased attention on the study of children’s cognitive development • Evolutionary psychology: Examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations (interest in animal behavior) • Positive psychology: Uses theory +research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence • Positive subjective experiences, individual traits, institutions +communities Focus of research • Developmental: Human development • Social: Interpersonal behavior • Educational: People learn +best ways to teach them • Health: Psychological factors relate to maintenance of physical health • Physiological: Influence genetic factors on behavior and role of the brain • Experimental: Sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation, emotion • Cognitive: higher mental processes, memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem • Psychometrics: Measurement of behavior +capacities • Personality: Describing +understanding individuals’consistency in behavior Professional • Clinical: Evaluation, diagnosis, treatment of individuals (most prominent+ widely practiced) • Counseling: interviewing, testing, providing therapy • Industrial +organizational: Business +industry, run HR departments, staff attitudes • School: Cognitive, emotional, social development • Clinical neuropsychology: Assessment +treatment of people who suffer from CNS dysfunctions • Forensic: Psychological principles to issues arising in the legal system • • Psychiatry: Branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis +treatment of psychological problems +disorders • Empiricism: Premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation • Theory: system of interrelated ideas used explain set of observations • Culture: widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations Themes related to psychology as a field of study • Psychology is empirical • Psychology is theoretically diverse • Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context Themes related to psychology’s subject matter • Behavior is determine by multiple causes • Behavior is shaped by cultural heritage • Hereditary +environment jointly influence behavior • People’s experience of the world is highly subjective Chapter 2 ScientificApproach to Behavior 1. Measurement +description 2. Understanding +prediction Hypothesis: tentative statement about the relationship b/w 2+ variables. Variables are any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, behaviors that are controlled/observed in a study 3. Application +control:Application +control Theory: system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations Systematic investigations= systematic Scientific investigation 1. Form testable hypothesis 2. Select research method +design the study 3. Collect the data 4. Analyze the date +draw conclusions 5. Report the findings • Operational definition: describes action/operation will be used measure/control variable • Participants: Subjects whose behavior is systematically observed in a study • Data collection techniques: procedures for making empirical observations +measurements • Journal: Periodical that publishes technical +scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry • Advantages scientific approach- clarity +precision and relative intolerance of error • Research methods consist of various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies • Experiment: Research method which investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions +observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result • X: Independent- condition/event experimenter varies in order see its impact on other variable • Y: Dependent: variable thought be affected by manipulation of independent variable • Experimental group: subjects who receive some special treatment regard to indep. Variable • Control group: subjects who do not receive special treatment given to experimental group • Extraneous variables: any variable other than the indep. Variable that seem likely to influence the dep. Variable in a specific study • Confounding of variables: occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects • Random assignment of subjects occur when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study • Naturalistic observation: researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects • Reactivity: Occurs when a subject’s behavior is altered by the presence of a observer • Case study: in-depth investigation of an individual subject • Psychological autopsies: Victims of suicide • Survey researchers use questionnaires/interviews to gather info about specific aspects of participants’background, attitudes, beliefs, behavior • Descriptive/correlational research broadens scope of phenomena psychologists able to study • Statistics: Use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data • Descriptive
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