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Intelligence Notes.docx

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Temple University
PSY 1071
Joel Sheffield

Kate Sydnes Psychology as a Natural Science November 3, 2011 Intelligence Notes I. The Definition of Intelligence a. The ability to learn, to meet the demands of the environment effectively, and to understand and control one’s mental activities b. Cognition is not unitary i. People with severe impairments in one domain can be exceptional in other domains (math vs. science vs. literature vs. physical strengths) II. The History of Intelligence a. Galton i. Cousin of Charles Darwin 1. Developed a fingerprinting system, lots of other stuff 2. First intelligence test (1869) a. Objective: ID people most likely to produce talented offspring 3. Mostly a sensory test and reaction time a. Pitch detection b. Weight discrimination c. Smell identification d. DIGIT SPAN (say numbers, have to repeat the numbers back, most people only get up to 7) ii. Reliable, not valid 1. Subtests not correlated with each other, no correlated with grades iii. “Intelligence is innate and inherited!” b. Alfred Binet i. Developed the “Binet-Simon” test 1. Tested memory, vocabulary, common knowledge, number use, concepts of time, ability to combine ideas ii. MentalAge 1. The youngest age a child of normal intelligence should be able to complete the task iii. Intelligence is… 1. Learned and remediable 2. Acomposite of many skills 3. Not able to be reduced to a number c. Terman: “Intelligence Quotient” i. “Standford-Binet” test = Terman’s adaptation of Binet’s test 1. (Mental age/ ChronologicalAge) X 100 d. Wechsler i. Terman’s calculation of intelligence was less appropriate for adults ii. Terman’s way of calculating IQ is not used now 1. Performance is compared to others of the same age iii. Wechsler Tests 1. WAIS-IV (adults) a. 4 component scores i. Verbal comprehension 1. Vocabulary (e.g. what is a guitar?) 2. Information (e.g. Who is the prime minister ofAustralia?) 3. Similarities (e.g. In what way are an apple and a pear alike?) ii. Working memory 1. DIGIT-SPAN (e.g. iii. Perceptual reasoning 1. Block design (arrange blocks to match design) 2. Matrix reasoning (non-verbal problem solving) 3. Visual puzzles (non-verbal reasoning) iv. Processing speed 1. Digit-symbol coding (visual-motor coordination) 2. Symbol search (visual-perceptual speed) 3. Cancellation (visual-perceptual speed) III. General Intelligence = “g” a. Scores on different intelligence sub-tests seem to correlate to each other i. Charles Spearman suggested the concept of “g” or general intelligence to explain this 1. Also suggested concept of “s” or specific intelligence to explain why correlations weren’t perfect 2. Believed the best measure of “g” was average across a wide range of tests b. Crystallized vs. Fluid
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