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Memory Notes.docx

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Temple University
PSY 1071
Joel Sheffield

Kate Sydnes Psychology as a Natural Science October 27, 2011 Memory Notes I. Who are you? How do you know? a. Without memory… i. There would only be a “now”, not a ‘then” ii. No memory, no self – you are your memory! iii.Clive – living with amnesia, he exhibits raw human emotion to the exclusion of everything else, like his love for his wife (this is fascinating!!!) iv. Jeremy – no short-term memory, but can still access his long-term memory (takes notes and sets alarms, even records his memories including thoughts, feelings, and stores them in a box) II. Amnesia a. Anterograde amnesia (50 First Dates, Dory!) i. Difficulty forming new memories after injury ii. Typically involves damage to the hippocampus iii.Old memories are okay, new memory are lost b. Retrograde amnesia (Borne!) i. Difficulty remembering things before injury ii. Common in movies, not a common in real life iii.Impairment is worse for events just leading up to injury iv. Old memories are lost, new memories are okay III. Classic Three Stages of Memory a. First: Sensory memory i. Sensory input is converted into neural impulses (transduction), sensory memory store (unattended memory is quickly lost) fades rapidly 1. Large capacity 2. Iconic memory – large capacity but fades very quickly (has a window of decay) 3. Need to select information from sensory memory and put it into working memory in order to maintain it for longer periods of time b. Second: Working (Short-term) memory i. The active, conscious mind 1. Unrehearsed memory is quickly lost 2. Visuaospatial sketchpad a. Mental imagery used to remember something 3. Articulatory loop a. Rehearsing the sound 4. Central executive a. Coordinates the first two processes ii. Has limited capacity (traditionally 7 +/- 2 items, now thought to be smaller 1. Depends on how fast you can say items (processing speed) iii.Serial Position effects 1. Primacy effect a. Items at the beginning are easier to remember than those in the middle 2. Recency effect a. Items at the end are easier to remember than those in the middle iv. “Chunking” 1. Greater visual short term memory for objects of expertise? v. Photographic Memory 1. The ability to faithfully, accurately recall visual information 2. One very compelling case a. Random dot stereogram c. Three: Long-term memory i. Encoding 1. Establishing a record or a memory trace ii. Retrieval 1. Accessing the memory trace 2. “Tip of the Tongue” phenomena iii.Very large capacity iv. Organized in a meaningful relations v. Reconstructive 1. We have to recreate episodes to retrieve them vi. Context-dependent memory vii. When encoding and retrieval venues match 1. Learning underwater or on land, better when you were tested in the same context in which you learned the words d. Spacing effects i. Information is retained better when rehearsal is distributed over time ii. Optimal space depends on how long you want to be able to retain information 1. The longer the intervals between rehearsal the longer you will be able to retain the information 2. Study tip: spread out your study across the semester IV. Common Study Strategies a. Rote rehearsal b. Underlining important passages c. These are relatively passive i. No “recoding” of material ii. E.g. Elaboration iii.Visualization 1. Afavorite of professional mnemoists iv. Self-reference effect 1. Memory is especially good for information related to ourselves 2. Study tip: Make the information relevant to you and your life when you study. V. Emotion and Memory a. Flashbulb Memories i. Acrysta
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