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Chapter 3

PSYC 314 Chapter 3: PSYC 314 Ch 3 Review Quiz

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PSYC 314

• Altruistic perspective: ethical decisions should be based on helping without personal benefit • Anonymity: a guarantee in research studies that individual responses cannot be linked back to individual participants • Assent: An action affirmation of a desire to participate from a person who does not have the ability to consent themselves; consent must also be sought from the legal guardian • Autonomy: participants must freely make an informed decision about their participation in research • Beneficence: actively promoting the welfare of others; an ethical obligation to maximize benefits in research studies • Confederate: an accomplice of the experimenter • Cost-benefit analysis: an ethical principle of research in which a researcher weighs all the potential and known benefits against all the potential and known risks before conducting a study • Cost of not doing research: considering the potential beneficial application of study findings when doing a cost-benefit analysis • Deception: intentionally misleading participants in some fashion • Egoism: ethical decisions should be based on acting in accordance with one’s own self- interest • Ethics: the application of moral principles to help guide one’s decisions and behavior • File drawer problem: a bias in the scientific community to only publish findings that confirm a researcher’s hypothesis • Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC): a board that reviews the ethical merit and research procedures for all animal research conducted without an institution and ensures research animals have proper living conditions • Institutional Review Board (IRB): a board that reviews the ethical merit of all the human research conducted within an institution • Justice: fairness in selecting study participants and in determining which participants receive the benefits of participation and which bear the burden of risk • Loss of confidentiality: a researcher must protect the privacy or individuals; a potential risk to participants • Nonmaleficence: do no harm; an ethical obligation to mitigate or eliminate risks to study participation • Paraphrase: summarizing others’ ideas in your own words while providing a proper citation • Physical harm: a researcher must consider the physical toll that study participation may have; a potential risk to participants • Plagiarism: representing others’ work or ideas as your own, or without giving proper credit • Psychological harm: a researcher must consider the psychological toll that study participation may have such as stress, negative emotions, or loss of self-esteem; a potential risk to participants • Scientific integrity: commitment to intellectual honesty and adherence to ethical principles in scientific research • Utilitarian perspective: ethical decisions should be based on doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people Your Turn 3.1 1. Which of the following would most likely represent an ethical dilemma for a person? a. Obeying the speed limit b. Determining whether to tell on your manager at world for stealing from the register c. Deciding whether to adhere to your workplace’s dress code d. Cheating on your income taxes 2. Selecting only homeless individuals to participate in or study although we have no real theoretical reason to use the homeless violates which ethical principle? a. Beneficence b. Nonmaleficence c. Justice d. Autonomy 3. An informed consent should address all of the following except: a. Any foreseeable risks or discomfort b. That the participants’ participation is voluntary c. That the participant cannot quit after signing the informed consent d. That the responses will be confidential Your Turn 3.2 1. A marriage counselor wants to evaluate the efficacy of a new approach to help couples communicate better in public settings and among strangers, Before this study can be conducting, approval is needed from all of the following groups except? a. The female participants in the study b. The Institutional Review Board c. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee d. The male participants in the study 2. Suppose that you are a psychology professor who wants to recruit research participants from your class. Which of the following strategies would be best for ensuring that you are preserving your students’ autonomy while recruiting them for you research study? a. Offer research participation in your study as one of the options for fulfilling a course requirement b. Require your students to participate in the study as part of their educational experience c. Suggest to students that they may not do as well in your course if they fail to participate in your study d. Offer to exempt any students who participate in your study from the final exam 3. To ensure confidentiality during a study, the researcher would do all of the following except a. Assign code numbers to the data b. Keep the participants’ informed consent separate from the participants’ data c. Have participants submit completed surveys in a sealed envelope d. Highlighting an individual’s responses by name in a conference presentation Your Turn 3.3 1. A researcher notices that several participants do not appear to be carefully reading the questions on her survey. She decides not to include these participants’ data in her study so that she has a “better” test of her research hypothesis. This behavior is problematic because of its a. Unethical treatment of the participants b. Unethical treatment of the data c. Unethical treatment of the results d. Unethical presentation of the findings 2. A researcher demonstrating scientific integrity would do all of the following except a. Share only significant findings in the write-ups of their studies b. Determine criteria for terminating data collect prior to starting the study c. Properly label the y-axis on figures and charts in order to avoid exaggerating small differences d. Carefully describe findings in such that correlational findings would not imply cause and effect 3. A journal editor decides to accept for publication only research studies in which the results are statistically significant. All of the following are potential ethical problems resulting from this decision except a. There is an increased potential for a file-drawer problem b. Researchers may be more likely to alter their data to ensure their results are statistically significant c. Authors are more likely to plagiarize from other statistically significant studies d. Authors may take more liberties in how they present the results to make them appear more impressive Chapter 3 Review 1. As a financially challenged college student, you see a flyer on campus about a research study on the impact of sunburns. The advertisement says you will be paid $500 to have a 1 inch by 1 inch square
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