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PSY-0012 (16)
Chapter 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0012
Professor
Jackquelyn Mascher
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4: Research Methods in the Study of Psychopathology04/15/2014 Critical Thinking Theory: body of principles offered to explain a set of observations Other research terms: Hypothesis A specific, testable, and predictive statement Must be “manageable” in order to effectively conduct research Operational definition Precise descriptions of all aspects of the hypothesis, so that measurements can be made 5 Ws, how much? What definitions do we need to research this statement: “children who play violent video games behavior  more aggressively” ?  Variables Scientific Method: gather evidence  formulate a theory   Goals of Psychological Research To describe To predict To control To explain Three additional responsibilities of researches are to share/publish, critique, and replicate results 3 Basic Methods of Research (Naturalistic) Observation: to describe  What is the nature of this thing? Features: observations of behavior in the environment in which it typically occurs Strengths: provides descriptive data about behavior presumably uncontaminated  by outside influences; can provide initial rich data about rare, novel, unstudied  phenomenon; can disprove hypothesis Pitfalls: observer bias and participant self­consciousness can distort results  Strategies Personal story: knowing from experience, like from diaries or interviews Ethnography: witnessing a group from the inside without interfering Case study: very, very in depth information about one individual or group or system Archival analysis: in depth analysis about accumulated records, historical information  Correlation: to show relationship If I know X, can I predict Y? Features: examine relationships between 2 or more variables as they exist naturally Strengths: can test predictions, evaluate theories, suggest new hypotheses Pitfalls: cannot infer causal relationships between variables  Four types “Perfect” correlation is represented by the number 1 (perfect prediction – if you know one score you know  the other score) “Positive” correlation is where both variables are “high” “Negative” correlation is where one variable is “high” and the other is “low” “Neutral” or zero correlation indicates absence of relationship  Experiment: to demonstrate cause and effect (using manipulation/control) Can I show that X or Y is a cause of the other?  Features: manipulation of independent variable(s) and measurement of its effects on dependent variable(s) Strengths: can support or disconfirm a cause­effect relationship between  independent and dependent variables Pitfalls: confounding variables usually prevent valid conclusions Types of Experimen
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