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Chapter 5

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APY 107
Niki Bertrand

Human Variation: Evolution, Adaptation, and Adaptability Human Variation at the Individual and Group Level What is a Population? Deme – refers to population defined by their genetic composition Race - in the biological sciences, it can be used interchangeably with subspecies Subspecies – refers to groups of local populations that share part of the geographic range of species but can be differentiated from them based on one or more phenotypic traits Polytypic Species – humans should be considered; consist a number of bringing populations each varying in some genetic traits Historical Perspectives on Human Variation Ethnobiology – the field understanding the different systems that culture has developed to classify objects and organisms and the world around us Ancient Egyptians: recognized physical differences Ancient Greeks: recognized Ethiopians (dark-skinned) Romans: had extensive knowledge but did not care too much about the differences The Monogenism-Polygenism Debate Monogenism: product of a single divine origin Environmentalism- theoretical support for monogenism environment has great powers to directly shape the anatomy of individual organisms Polygenism: different races can be viewed as their own evolutionary history Absolutely rejected that environment can have such a strong influence. neither debates supported equality Race and Racism in 20 Century Increasing awareness of racism Racism - prejudicial belief that one member of ethnic group are superioir over others basis: intellectuality of one ethnic group Japanese – conquest China Nazi America legal separation Changing Attitudes towards racism Franz Boas – anthropologist; influential and shifted concept of race Stressed between of different groups should be explored locally as opposed to globally argued little connection between racial biology and cultural development Craniometry –measurement of cranial Anthropemetry – measurement of skeletal body Ashley Montagu – strong opponent of “ethnic group” as opposed to race race has no scientific valiidty Ethnic group - Population – use population instead of ethnic group Deconstructing Racial Features Skin Color – likely influenced by natural selection; global scale: not good indicator Eye form – fatty eyelids and low nosebridge  adaptation to cold climates Hair color and form – hair is determined by the same substance that determines skin color Head shape Cranial index – introduced to categorize shape of human skull Was at one point use to measure race Not valid today Human populations show substantial change today there is a relationship between skull shape and climate breadth of cranial increases in colder environment Population Genetics – study of genetic variation within and between organisms Microevolution Polymorphisms: ABO and others – two more distinct phenotypes exist in a population Maternal-Fetal incompatibility ABO Blood Type Incompatability in some areas, O is the most prevalent type reason : could be related to disease populations more vulnerable to viral disease should have higher percentage of type O populations more vulnerable to bacteria should have a balanced percentage of type A and B when mother gets exposed to baby’s blood (B), she will make antigens B for the baby. Rheses (Rh) System – develops similarly RH positive father can be heterozygous or both positive RH negative mother have to be homozygous recessive during pregnancy, fetus has + and then mother is exposed Gene Flow and Polymorphism Lemba of South Africa or called Black Jews ancestral to claim jewesh ancestry over half population of Y chromosome have semetic origins compared with europeans Y Chromosome and Haplotypes Haplotypes – combination of sequences of alleles Gene Flow and Morphological Features Not commonly used – morphological can be changed by environment dental traits – actual shape of dental palette sinodanty – traits are found in north Asian populations and new world populations traced back to 18000 years ago in northern china sundadonty – south east Asian, Australian, Japanese populations can trace origins of trait Polymorphisms and Phylog
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