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Chapter 11

PSY 101LEC Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Phallic Stage, Reaction Formation, Toilet Training


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 101LEC
Professor
Wendy Quinton
Chapter
11

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Psychology Chapter 11
Personality:
1. The stability in a person’s behavior over time and across situations (consistency)
Personality indicates the person have a fairly consistent tendency to
behave in a certain way.
This quality of consistency across situations lies at the core concept of
personality.
But no one is entirely consistent in behavior.
2. The behavioral differences among people reacting to same situation
(distinctiveness)
Distinctiveness is the central concept of personality.
Explains why everyone does not act the same way in similar situations.
Personality = An individual’s unique set of consistent behavioral traits.
Personality Trait = A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in variety
of situations Characteristics and Qualities uses adjectives.
Factor Analysis = correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify
closely related clusters of variables.
o Used to identify hidden factors higher-order traits and less basic
BIG FIVE OCEAN (Openness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness,
Extraversion)
Correlations have been found between the Big Five traits and quite a variety of
important life outcomes.
Some argue that only 2 or 3 traits are necessary to account for most of the
variation seen in human personality, while others suggest more than 5 traits are
needed to describe personality.
Psychodynamic Perspectives in Personality (Freud)
Diverse theories from Sigmund Freund that focuses on unconscious and mental
forces.
Freud used case studies from clinical practice of psychoanalysis.
Past events in childhood determine our adult’s personality.
Our behavior is dominated by unconscious, irrational wishes, needs, and conflicts.
Personality development progresses through stages.
Three personality structures components:
Three interacting components id, ego, superego operating at three levels of
consciousness.
Id = The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according
to the pleasure principle houses the raw biological urges that energize human’s
behaviors.
o Pleasure Principle = Demands immediate gratification of its urge.

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Ego = Decision-making component of personality that operates according to the
reality principle it considers the social realities, deciding how to behave.
o Reality Principle = Seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until
appropriate outlets and situations can be found.
Superego = The moral component of personality that incorporates social standards
about what represents right and wrong.
Levels of Awareness
Freudian Slip = Slip of the tongue often revealed a person’s true feelings.
Dreams often expressed hidden desires.
Conscious = Consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point of time.
Preconscious = Contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can
easily be retrieved.
Unconscious = Contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the
surface of conscious awareness, but that nonetheless exert great influence on
behavior.
Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms
Conflicts between the id, ego, and superego sometimes lead to anxiety use
defense mechanisms to temporarily relieve anxiety.
Defense Mechanisms = Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from
unpleasant emotions, such as anxiety and guilt.
Types of Defense Mechanism
Repression = Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.
Projection = Attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another.
(Self-Deception)
Displacement = Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original
source to a substitute target.
Rationalization = Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable
behavior. (Self-Deception)
Reaction Formation = Behaving in a way that’s exactly the opposite of one’s true
feelings
Regression = A reversion to immature patterns of behavior.
Identification = Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance
with some person or group.
Repressing coping style have an impoverished memory for events that trigger
unpleasant emotions and avoid negative information’s.
o A link between repressive coping and poor physical health such as heart
disease.
Reaction formation underlies homophobia = involves an intense fear and
intolerance of homosexuality.
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o Ex. They are gay, but reported that they are straight and have strong
hostility towards the gays. (conflict with id (sex drive) and ego (social
norms).
Personality Development: Psychosexual Stages
Emphasis on fixation or progress through psychosexual stages and experiences in
early childhood such as toilet training can leave lasting mark on adult
personality.
Unconscious fixations and unresolved conflicts from childhood usually
centering on sex and aggression.
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Psychosexual stages = Developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus
that leave their mark on adult personality.
Fixation = Involves a failure to move forward from one stage to another will
affect adult personality.
o Caused by excessive gratification of needs at a particular stage.
o Caused by excessive frustration of those needs not meeting the goals yet.
Phallic Stage:
o Little boys develop an erotically tinged preference for their mother and
feel hostility toward their father viewing them as a competitor for mom’s
affection.
o Little girls are penis envy which feel hostile toward their mother because
they blame her for their anatomical deficiency.
o Oedipal complex = Children manifest erotically tinged desires for their
opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their
same sex parent.
Carl Jung’s Analytical Psychology
Two layers of unconsciousness
o Personal unconscious Not within one’s conscious awareness because it
has been repressed or forgotten.
o Collective unconscious Storehouse of latent memory traces inherited
from people’s ancestral past.
Archetypes = Ancestral memories of entire human races emotionally charged
images and thought forms that have universal meaning.
o Symbols in art, literature, and religion
Adler’s Individual Psychology
Social forces shape personality development.
Striving for superiority is the foremost motivational force in people’s lives.
The foremost source of human motivation is a striving for superiority.
o A universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s challenges.
Everyone has to work to overcome some feelings of inferiority.
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