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PSY 351 (8)
Chapter 2

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PSY 351
Scott Wersinger

Chapter 2: Structure and function of cells in the nervous system 1) Asensory neuron is neurons that detect external and internal environment and sends and receive these information to the central nervous system 2) Amotor neuron controls the contraction of muscles and secretion of glands 3) An interneuron lies entirely within the central nervous system. a. Local interneuron form circuit with nearby neurons and analyse small piece of information b. Relay interneuron connect local interneuron from one region of the brain to another 4) Synaptic transmission 5) CNS is called the central nervous system which consist the brain and spinal cord 6) PNS is called the peripheral nervous system that consist of the nerve and sensory organs 7) A. Soma(cell body) = contains the nucleus and support the life processes of the cells. b. Dendrites = Receive message from another neuron c. Axon = Transfer message from the cell body to the terminal button d. Axon hillock =Aspecialized part of the cell body that connects to the axon e. Trigger zone = The area at the axon hillock where action potential occurs when the threshold is reached f. Myelin =Asheath that surrounds the axon to insulate one axon from another g. Terminal Button = Send message to another neuron h. Node of Ranvier = portion of the axon not covered in myelin sheath i. Internal structure: a. Nucleus = Contain chromosome and control the cell activity b. Cytoplasm =Ajelly-like substance that contain many small specialized structure c. Mitochondria = Breakdown nutrients (e.g. glucose) to produceATP which is the main source of energy for the cell 8) Unipolar =Aneuron with one axon attached to the soma and branch out to two different direction; one end receive sensory information and the other end send the information to the brain = E.g. Dorsal root Bipolar =Aneuron with one axon and one dendrite at the opposite ends of the soma with the synapse = E.g. Spinal ganglia Multipolar =Aneuron with one axon but many dendrites attached to the soma. Most common neuron in the central nervous system = E.g. nerve cells 9) Astrocyte = Serve as a matrix that holds neuron in place = Surround and isolate synapse which limits the dispersion of neurotransmitters Microglia = Break down dead and dying neuron = Protect the brain from invading microorganism Oligodendrocyte = Support axon by producing myelin to create myelin sheath in the CNS Schwann cell = Support axon by producing myelin to create myelin sheath in the PNS Radial glia = Involve in patterning and migration of cell =Aprecursor for neurogenesis 10) Blood- Brain barrier is a barrier that separates the blood from the brain’s extracellular fluid. a. It occurs in all capillaries in the brain and tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation. (these capillaries do not have gaps in their wall that allow certain substance to get through) b. It is important to prevent che
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