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Chapter 5

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 5 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 230
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 5- Perceptual and Motor Development: 5.1: Basic Sensory and Perceptual Processes • Sensory and perceptual processes are the means by which people receive, select, modify, and organize stimulation from the world • Perceptual processes are closely linked to motor skills—coordinated movements of the muscles and limbs • When a novel stimulus is presented, babies pay much attention, but they pay less attention as it becomes more familiar, a phenomenon known as habituation • Smell, Taste, and Touch: o Babies react to pleasant and unpleasant smells. o Young children also can recognize familiar odors. Newborns will look in the direction of a pad that is saturated with their own amniotic fluid, their mother’s breast milk, or perfume o Newborns also have a highly developed sense of taste o Sensitive to touch reflexes • Hearing: o Auditory threshold refers to the quietest sound that a person can hear.An adult’s auditory threshold is fairly easy to measure because they can communicate. With young children, we watch their responses, such as turning heads, etc. o Adults can hear some very quiet sounds that infants cannot o Infants also can distinguish different musical melodies and sounds. They prefer pleasant sounding melodies over unpleasant or dissonant sounds • Seeing: o Visual activity is defined as the smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependably o When infants look at two stimuli equally, it indicates that they are no longer able to distinguish the stripes of the patterned stimulus. By measuring the width of the stripes and their distance from an infant’s eye, we can estimate acuity o Measurements of this sort indicate that newborns and one month olds see at twenty feet what normal adults see at 200-400 feet. By their first birthday however, their vision is as good as an adults’ o We detect wavelength, and therefore color, with specialized neurons called cones that are in the retina of the eye o Newborns and young babies can perceive few colors, but by three months the three kinds of cones and their associated circuits are working and infants are bale to see the full range of colors 5.2-Complex Perceptual andAttentional Processes: • Perceptual Constancies: o Size constancy- the realization that an object’s actual size remains the same despite changes in the size of its retinal image o Motion, color, texture and edges to distinguish objects o By about four months, infants have begun to master size, brightness, shape, and color constancy o Infants perceive faces early in the first year.
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