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Chapter 11

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 11 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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PSY 230
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Chapter 11 Understanding Self and Others (11.1 and 11.2 on Test 4/4/13) 11.1-Who Am I? Self-Concept: • Self-concept refers to the attitudes, behaviors, and values that a person believes make him or her a unique individual Origins of Self-Recognition: • At about 15 months, infants begin to recognize themselves in the mirror, one of the first signs of self-recognition • They also begin to prefer to look at pictures of themselves, to refer to themselves by name and with personal pronouns, and sometimes know their age and gender The Evolving Self-Concept: • Preschoolers often define themselves in terms of observable characteristics, such as possessions, physical characteristics, preferences, and competencies • During elementary school, self-concept begins to include emotions, social groups, and comparisons with peers • During adolescence, self-concept includes attitudes, personality traits, beliefs, and future plans • In general, adolescents’self-concepts are more abstract, more psychological, and more future oriented The Search for Identity: • The self-absorption that marks the teenage search for identity is referred to as adolescent egocentrism • Many adolescents feel that they are, in effect, actors whose performance is being watched constantly by their peers, a phenomenon known as imaginary audience • Adolescent self-absorption is also demonstrated by the personal fable, teenagers’ tendency to believe that their experiences and feelings are unique, that no one has ever felt or thought as they do • Adolescents’belief in their uniqueness also contributes to an illusion of invulnerability, the belief that misfortune only happens to others • Diffusion: are confused by the task of achieving an identity and are doing little to achieve one • Foreclosure: have an identity determined largely by adults, rather than from personal exploration of alternatives • Moratorium: still examining different alternatives and have yet to find a satisfactory identity • Achievement: have explored alternatives and have deli
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