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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes

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PSY 260
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Chapter 4: Study of Motivation: investigation of the reasons why people behave the way they do Instincts: innate, preprogrammed, biological urge, satisfied by a simple action • Freud believed all human motives could be described roughly as falling categories of sex and aggression o Infants – bodily/touching/eating pleasure = sex drive o Joining others/friendships/love = part of this instinct o Curiosity = beginning with sexual instinct • Most other theorists of the time were also instinct theorists Motive: basic biologically-based needs of the organism to behave in a particular way – needs, urges, desires • Different motives emerge from different areas in the brain/work in different ways – ex. hunger = 1 person, biological need, sex = 2 people, complex motive • Inanimate objects n Acquisition, n Order • Ambition n Achievement, n Recognition • Superiority: n Inviolacy, n Defendance • Sado-Masochism: n Aggression, n Abasement • Affection: n Affiliation, n Rejection Projective Measures of Motives: the presence of an ambiguous stimulus to which an individual must respond • As a person constructs a story to the stimulus, portions of his or her style of thinking – as well as a motive – are expressed and can be measured • Projective testing exercise: tell a story…what happened to bring this about? What is going on now? What will happen next? • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – uses ambiguous stimuli as its items – the test-taker must respond procedure: a participant is asked to tell a story about a picture: how did it begin? What is happening? How will it end? Developed by Henry Murray/Christina Morgan – content of stories are evaluated according to themes/ideas expressed by the individual o Need for Achievement: meeting standards of excellence/unique attainments/goals – n superiority o Need for Power: controlling others/heighten influence/protection of others – n succorance o Need for Affiliation: positive relationships with others/repairing relationships – n nurturance Self-Judgement/Self-Report: people are asked direct questions about themselves • Factor Analysis of Self Report – list of 20 needs by Murray • Factor Findings: fear avoidance, sex, assertiveness, narcissism, sadism, achieving – people are not necessarily honest about these • Social Desirability: of a test item – concerns the degree to which endorsing the item would be viewed as good by society Forced-Choice Scale Design: to control the impact of social desirability – 2 choices to choose from of equal social desirability • Example: do you prefer a) sexy movie b) violent movie – B. would you describe yourself as seeking revenge against those who injure you --- skews data, doesn’t ask for a true favorite movie choice • Needs to be many possibilities, ex. Drama/adventure/historical etc. • And don’t we all like a little revenge? Ex. Supermarket lines, parking lots etc. Motivation: What does it influence? • N for Achievement: prefer tasks of moderate difficulty/challenging, get higher grades only in courses relevant to goals, more involved in occupations and upwardly mobile, persistent, future-oriented – good grades only necessarily in classes that pertain to future (entrepreneurial/enterprise) • N for Power: direct/reward/punish others: executives, psychologists, teachers, journalists, clergy – express extreme opinions on matters to get visibility; obtain desired possessions, could also want to help others gain power; but not necessarily well-liked • N for Affiliation: spend more time with others; write more letters, sympathetic and accommodating, if intimacy, less popular – dependent, better adjusted o Need for intimacy: need to share inner thoughts/feelings with others Sex Drive: in a study, Americans are actually more conservative, fewer partners, sex once a week – those with more sex tended to like dating more/more partners/get over them quickly Urgency of Needs: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization Personal Strivings: activities people engage in so as to meet their goals. Many types of striving may be necessary in order to meet a single goal – Emmons found that people can reliably report what they strive for, setting realistic goals generate good feelings, holding negative goals generates bad feelings – specific motives affect emotion From Motives to Emotion • Certain motives trigger emotions ex. Anger often accompanies aggression • Happiness and joining others (affiliation) • Emotion can amplify motives ex. Happiness can amplify altruism (charity) • Plutick’s model of emotions and their derivatives o Emotion-Motive Connections  Emotion – fear, anger, joy  Behavioral/Motive – escaping, attacking, mating  Functional – protection, destruction, reproduction  Trait – timid, quarrelsome, sociable Emotions as Evolved Signal System • Darwin and
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