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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

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PSY 260
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Personality Psychology Chapter 1: What is personality? Part 1: Exploring Personality Three Big Questions: 1. Who am I? 2. How do people differ? 3. What is my future? These three questions tie ancient philosophy to contemporary psych. Who am I? - Origins o Temple at Delphi… “know thyself” o Socrates… interested only in self-knowledge - Secondary Realization o It is hard to know oneself! o Unconscious influences - Today o Implicit personality theory o Personality psychology The Zoolander Questions – self-discovery is a natural stage in every individual’s life How and Why People are Different? - Origins o Characterology: the literary study of different personalities  Theophrastus (student of Plato and Aristotle) – “the flatterer is a person who will say as he walks with another, do you observe how others are looking at you? This happens to no man in Athens but you  Theophrastus – the garrulous man is one that will sit down close beside somebody he does not know and not stop talking Quotes from the father of characterology Theophrastus - time is the most valuable thing a man can spend - the man of petty ambition if invited to dinner will be eager to be set next his host - ah, yes superstition: it would appear to be cowardice in face of the supernatural How and Why are People Different? - Origins o Humoural theory: the attempt to find biological bases for individual differences  Developed by Hippocrates, Galen  Four types • Sanguine (even-tempered, blood) - air • Choleric (irritable, yellow bile) - fire • Melancholic (depressed, black bile) – earth • Phlegmatic (low energy, phlegm) – water  Hans Eysenck Theory of Personality – changed theory a little by adding characteristics of personality for each type • Sanguine – between emotionally stable and extraverted • Choleric – between emotionally unstable and extraverted • Melancholic – between emotionally unstable and introverted • Phlegmatic – between emotionally stable and introverted - Contemporary o Assessment of personality o Mental measurement o The study of individual differences - What Will my Future Be? o Origins  Since
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