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PSY 309 (1)
Chapter 1-6

PSY 309 Chapter 1-6: Quiz one materials

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University of Oregon
PSY 309
Nicholas Allen

Notes for Quiz 1 Indicators of Abnormality • Subjective distress • Maladaptiveness • Statistical deviancy • Violation of standards of society • Social discomfort • Irrationality or unpredictability • Dangerousness Chapter 3: • A variable (X) that is associated with an outcome of interest (Y) is considered to be a correlate of that outcome. • If, and only, (X) is shown to proceed (Y) in time can we confirm that (X) is a risk factor for(Y). • If (X) can be changed then it is a variable risk factor for outcome (Y) • If (X) cannot be changed it is considered a fixed marker for outcome (Y) • if (X) causes (Y) it is a causal risk factor, if it does not it is a variable marker for (Y) Etiology: causal pattern of abnormal behavior. A necessary cause is a characteristic that must exist for a disorder to occur. (e.g. a degenerative brain disorder that cannot develop a lesser person has previously contracted syphilis) if X than Y A sufficient cause of a disorder is a condition that guarantees the occurrence of the disorder (e.g. theory that hopelessness causes depression) if X occurs then Y will also occur Contributory cause is one that increases the probability of a disorder developing (but is neither necessary nor sufficient for the disorder to occur) If X occurs then the probability of Y occurring increases Distal risk factors—symptoms appear later in life Proximal risk factors—symptoms occur more rapidly A diathesis (a vulnerability) that predisposes developing a disorder, resulting in stress (E.G. The diathesis- stress model) additive model the diathesis and stress sum together Biological perspective and genetics vulnerabilities Genes are very long molecules of DNA Chromosomes are the same like structures within the cell nucleus that contain the genes • Exists in two alternate forms (e.g. alleles) Polygenic—they are influenced by multiple genes or multiple polymorphisms of genes. Methods to study the extent of genetic versus environmental influences include: • Family history method • Adoption method • twin method more recently the linkage analysis and association studies are being used. The most prominent psychological perspectives on abnormal psychology: • psychodynamic (recognition is often unconscious forces) • behavioral • cognitive-behavioral Sources of psychologically determined vulnerability include: early deprivation or trauma, problems in parenting style, martial discord or divorce, low socioeconomic status, unemployment, prejudice, and discrimination. Chapter 4 • Psychological assessment refers to procedure by which clinicians use psychological tests, observations, and interviews to develop a summary of the client’s symptoms and problems. • Clinical diagnosis is the process to arrive at a general summary classification—as defined in the DSM-5 or ICD-10 (International classification of diseases) • presenting problem for major symptoms and behavior the client is experiencing. Must be ide
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