Psychology CH 4 The Brain

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSC 1
Professor
Anjali Mishra
Semester
Fall

Description
The Brain CH4 10/10/2012 Neuropsychology: study of the brain Nervous System: gather/process information Central nervous system Brain and spinal chord Peripheral nervous system Muscle movement Somatic Nervous system Voluntary muscle movement Autonomic Nervous system Internal organs/glands Sympathetic Fight/flight Parasympathetic Brakes (calm down!) Neurons: group of neurotransmitters, brain’s communicating specialists Glial cells: provide neurons with nutrients and protects brain Dendrites ­ Cell body(nucleus) ­> Axon ­> Axon terminal (releases neurotransmitters Myelin Sheath: fatty cells that protect the axon Speeds up signal Stem cells: immature cells that renew themselves and develop into mature cells Pancreatic Liver cells Nerve cells Neurogenesis the production of new neurons from immature cells (stem cell research) Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by neurons Serotonin: Mood, sleep, appetite, sensory perception, temperature regulation, pain suppression Depression (low) Dopamine:  Pleasure ­ Voluntary movement, learning, memory, emotion, response to novelty Tremors/Parkinson’s disease (low) Acetylcholine: Memory, Muscle action, emotion, cognitive thinking Alzheimer’s disease (low levels) Epinephrine: energy (adrenaline) (high)­ ADHD,  anxiousness, sleep problems (low)­ fatigue, lack of focus Norepinephrine: Dreaming, waking up, learning, memory, Incr. heart rate due to stress Post traumatic Stress Syndrome Gamma/GABA: major inhibitor Sleep/eating disorders, nervousness (high) Glutamate: major excitatory neurotransmitter Multiple sclerosis (too high) Endorphins: similar to opiates, involved in pain reduction, pleasure, memory Plasticity: ability for brain to change and adapt to new experiences ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Hormones: chemical substances secreted by glands that affect functioning of other organs Endocrine glands:  Melatonin: biological rhythms By Pineal gland Induces sleep Oxytocin: E
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