Psychology CH 11 Emotions

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSC 1
Professor
Anjali Mishra
Semester
Fall

Description
Emotions CH11 11/14/2012 Emotion: Mutli­component responses to challenges or opportunities that are important to the individual’s  goals, expecially social ones Primary emotions: fear, anger, sadness, happiness, surprise, disgust, and contempt Universal and biologically based Secondary Emotions: emotions that are specific to certain cultures or those that usually develop with  cognitive maturity Ex. Amae (Japan)­ sweet dependency Ex. Lajya (India) THE FULL CIRCLE OF EMOTIONS (Russell, 1980) Valence: feels pleasant or unpleasant Arousal: engagement or excitement versus calmness or passivity of the emotion WHY DO WE HAVE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS? ­Survival purposes to avoid threats fear, disgust ­moral and social functions embarrassment, guilt BROADEN AND BUILD MODEL OF POSITIVE EMOTIONS Cognitive Resources: problem solving Social: long lasting relationships Physical: better health Psychological Resources: optimism ^^all connected to positive emotions emotions and the body: Fear: eyebrows raised, pulled together Raised upper eye lids Tensed lower eye lids Lips slightly stretched Anger: eye­brows down, together Sadness, surprise…. Duchenne Smile: includes eyes Communicating Emotions: Display Rules: social and cultural rules that regulate when,how, and where a person may  express/suppress emotions Body Language: Non­verbal signals such as gestures, body movement, proximity during  conversations, eye­gaze Emblems: Illustrators: Regulators: want/don’t want conversation Self­Adaptor:  release of nervous energies in stressful situation EMOTION AND THE BRAIN Left prefrontal Cortex: motivation to approach others Damage­ loss of joy Right prefrontal cortex: withdrawal and escape Damage­ excessive mania and euphoria Amygdala: assessing threat (survival) Damage­ abnormality in processing fear Amygdala scrutinizes info for its emotional importance ­> cerebral cortex generates a more complete picture; it can override signal sent by amygdala Hormones involved in intese emotions: Epinephrine Norepinephrine Leads to increased alertness and arousal High levels can create______ Emotions are created or influenced by  Beliefs, perceptions of the situation, expectations, attributions INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY  Collectivist Cultures: the needs of the group are more important than the needs of the individual Self in japan, china, and india refer to “one’s portion of the shared life” Individualist Cultures: The needs of the individual are the most important consideration Western idea: self is independent agent GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EMOTIONS Women: expected to express more positive emotions than men Caretaking roles Men: expected to exhibit emotions that will enable maintain power/status **Gender differences may not be universal across cultures Primary Emotions are  universal   Secondary emotions are specific to certain cultures Stress: Mind, Body, and Emotion 11/14/2012 Stress: A force which induces distress or strain upon both the emotional and physical makeup Stress: Mind, Body, and Emotion 11/14/2012 Physical Stress: stressors in the environment Environmental pollution, constant noise, idadequate supply of oxygen Psychological Stress: involves the way we react t
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