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Chapter 1-6, 11

BIO SCI 93 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-6, 11: Exocytosis, Glycosidic Bond, Aquaporin


Biological Sciences
Course Code
Jorge Busciglio Kim Green Marcelo A Wood
1-6, 11

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Chap 1 Evolution, Theme of Biology, Scientific Inquiry
Evolution- process of change that has transformed life on Earth from beginning to diversity
Reductionism- reduces complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to
Emergent properties- due to arrangement and interaction of parts as complexity increases
Systems biology- exploration of biological system by analyzing the interaction among its parts
Eukaryotic cell- membrane enclosed organelles
Prokaryotic cell- lacks nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles and are smaller than
eukaryotic cells
DNA- it is chromosomes and contains genetics materials and each chromosomes contains one
very long DNA molecules with many genes (section of the DNA of chromosome and are units of
Gene expression- information in gene directs the manufacture of a cellular product
Genome- entire library of genetics instruction that an organism inherits
Genomics- study whole sets of genes in one or more species
Proteomics- study of sets of proteins and their properties
Bioinformatics- use of computational tools to store, organize and analyze the data
Consumers- organisms that feed on producers and other consumers
Feedback regulation- product of a process regulates that very process, common is negative
feedback loop which product reduces the initial stimulus and positive feedback which product
speeds up own production
Chap 6 Cell Overview
Light microscope-first used by Renaissance and in our own lab. Visible light is passed through
specimen then glass lenses. The lenses refract the light, so the specimen is magnified.
Microscopy parameters-Magnification is ratio of object image size to real size, Resolution is
measure of clarity of image, Contrast difference in brightness between light and dark area of
Electron Microscope- focus beam of electron through specimen, first used to see organelles
Scanning Electron Microscope-electron beam scan surface of sample coated with gold
Transmission Electron Microscope- study internal structure of cells, specimen is stain with
heavy metal
Cell Fractionation- takes cells apart and separate major organelles and structure through a
spinning centrifuge
Cytosol- semifluid jellylike substance inside of all cells
Eukaryotic Cell
-DNA is in nucleus which is bound by double membrane
-membrane-bound structures (organelle)
Prokaryotic Cell
-DNA is in a region called the nucleoid which is not enclosed by any membrane
-no membrane-bound structures (organelle)
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Surface Area to Volume ratio-the smaller the cell the higher surface area to volume ratio
which means for a more effective plasma membrane which allows for more things to cross
Nucleus- contain genes in eukaryotic cell, and is covered by the nuclear envelope- double
membrane and has pores that have protein calle pore complex which regulates entry and exit
of protein and RNA and macromolecules. On the inside membrane it is lined by nuclear lamina
which are protein filaments that maintain shape of nucleus. There is also nuclear matrix which
is framework of protein fibers in nuclear interior.
Nucleolus- structure in nucleus where rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is made, and protein from
cytoplasm is assembled with the rRNA to make subunit of ribosome.
Ribosome- carry out protein synthesis, are not membrane bound. Have two types Free- is
suspended in cytosol, Bound- attached to rough E.R or nuclear envelope
Endomembrane system- carry out synthesis of protein, transport of protein, metabolism of
lipid, detox
Smooth- synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs,
storage of calcium ion
Rough- has ribosomes attach to it so it can create
Glycoprotein(protein+carbohydrates), attached in the ER lumen. They then leave in transport
vesicles from the E.R, to another part of the cell. It is a membrane factory, by adding own
membrane protein and phospholipid in own membrane.
Golgi Apparatus- used for transport and shipping. Made of cisternae. Has two sides. Cis-
located near E.R where transport vesicles move material from E.R to Golgi. Trans- gives off
vesicles that leave the Golgi.Modifies the Glycoprotein’s carbohydrate. Manufactures
Lysosome- sac of enzyme that cells use to digest macromolecules. Acidic environment. Three
dimensional shape or own protein protect from the digestive enzyme. Using autophagy can
recycle cell own organic material.
Vacuoles- large vesicles, many types like Food vacuole (formed by phagocytosis), contractile
vacuoles (pump excess water out of cells). Plants have central vacuole (cell sap, has
inorganic ion, and grows in the cell due to absorbing water which makes cell larger without new
cytoplasm investment)
Endosymbiont theory- early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed prokaryotic cell, then
merged to become single organism. Has two membranes.contain DNA. Have own organelle.
Peroxisome- single membrane that contain enzyme that remove hydrogen atoms from
substrates and add them to O2 forming H2O2, can break down fatty acid and detoxify harmful
compounds. H2O2 is toxic but is converted to water.
Cytoskeleton- network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. Give mechanical support
to cell and maintain shape, cell motility (cell movement) through motor proteins.
Microtubules(thickest)-,in all eukaryotic, compression resisting role, made from tubulin, grow
out from centrosome and is organized by the centrioles(microtubules arranged in ring) inside.
Responsible for beating of flagella or cilia to move in liquid. This is anchored by the basal body
and bending is produced by the motor protein called dynein.
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Microfilaments(thinnest)- made of actin, bear tension role, actin filaments and protein filament
(myosin) cause contraction of muscle cells. Can crawl on surface by extending pseudopodia,
and contribute to cytoplasmic streaming which is the circular flow of cytoplasm within cells.
Intermediate filaments-only found in some animal cells. Bearing tension.Permanent fixture of
cell, even after death the network still persist, Makeup nuclear lamina, supporting cell shape.
Cell wall- extracellular structure of plant cells, it maintain shape and prevent excess uptake of
water. First cell wall is primary cell wall and between primary cell walls there is middle lamella
that stick adjacent cells together through pectin. Can have secondary cell walls. Has
plasmodesmata channels that connects cells, so the whole plant is connected and and can
transport materials.
Chap 2 Chemical Context of Life
Matter-anything that takes up space and has mass
Elements- substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
Compound- substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio
Essential elements- elements that an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce.
Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen,nitrogen,calcium,phosphorous,potassium,sulfur.
Trace elements- required by an organism in only little quantity.
Subatomic Particles- tiny bits of matter composed of smaller than atom
Atomic Nucleus- protons and neutrons are packed together in core, center of atom
Dalton- unit of measurement for atom and subatomic particles
Atomic Number-number of protons
Mass number- sum of protons and neutrons
Isotopes- different atomic forms of the same elements, b/c different neutrons
Radioactive Isotope- nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy and can
change element.
Half-life- the time it takes for 50% of the parent isotope to decay.
Radiometric dating- measure ratio of different isotopes and calculate how many year have
passed since organism was fossilized or rock formed.
Energy- capacity to cause change, by doing work
Potential energy- energy that matter posses because of location or structure
Valence Shell- the outermost electron shell, chemical behavior depends on the number of
electron in this shell
Orbital- three dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
Chemical bonds- atom held by attractions
Covalent bond- sharing of pair of valence electrons by two atoms (nonmetal/nonmetal)
Molecule- two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Valence- number of unpaired electrons required to complete the atom's outermost valence shell
Electronegativity- attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond, stronger
the electronegativity the more it pulls the electrons toward itself
Nonpolar covalent bond- same electronegativity
Polar covalent bond- electronegativity difference greater than 0.4
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