Bio 97 Mutations.docx

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University of California - Irvine
Biological Sciences
Rahul Warrior

Mutations • All amino acids except Trp and Met are specified by multiple codons • Synonomous codons generally differ only in the third base • Generally the third base is either a purine or pyrimidine in both codons • The third base of a codon needs only to be a purine/pyrimidine pair and not exactly complementary Point mutations –silent The Exon Shuffle Model works because introns do not code for protein and do not have a reading frame Bacteria • Bacterial chromosomes are densely packed to form a small region called the nucleoid • Two features allow DNA compaction: 1. Proteins help organize the DNA into a series of tight loops 2. The circular DNA undergoes supercoiling Bacteria isn’t isn’t relaxed but is supercoil and helps pack DNA into a limited region Depending on which way you wound the DNA in – it is either positive or negative DNA forms into small loops bounded by SMC proteins and then they are formed into larger loops. SMC – structural maintenance of chromosome proteins bind DNA More DNA per cell in eukaryotes than bacteria Same sort of process – super coiling and binding proteins Chromatin – DNA bound to proteins Aeukaryoti
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