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Chapter 6

PSY BEH 104S Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Cognitive Dissonance, Treatment As Prevention, Impact BiasExam


Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
PSY BEH 104S
Professor
Joanne Zinger
Chapter
6

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Chapter 6 Practice Questions
1. An individual who strongly opposes helmet laws is excited to find a study which shows that neck injuries are a more
common outcome of motorcycle accidents when helmets are worn than when helmets are not worn. This individual is
reducing dissonance by:
a) changing behavior to bring it in line with the dissonant cognition.
b) adding cognitions that justify the behavior.
c) modifying dissonant cognitions to justify the behavior.
d) adopting a self-concept that is consistent with the behavior.
2. If a participant in Brehm’s (1956) study claimed that an iron and an electric can opener were equally desirable
appliances, she was asked to choose one of these as a gift. Later she was asked to rerate the two appliances. If she chose
the can opener, her second rating of the appliances were typically:
a) lower for the can opener and higher for the iron.
b) lower for the can opener and lower for the iron.
c) higher for the can opener and higher for the iron.
d) higher for the can opener and lower for the iron.
3. An insurance salesperson offers a home insurance policy to customers at a very low rate. Just before the sale, he claims
to have realized an error in his calculations. The actual cost of the policy, he claims, is substantially greater than he
originally estimated. What is the name of the unscrupulous strategy used by the insurance salesperson?
a) lowballing
b) hard selling
c) counterattitudinal advocacy
d) rationalizing
4. Mills (1958) had children compete on a difficult exam under conditions that made cheating easy and presumably
undetectable. The children’s attitudes toward cheating were measured the next day and revealed that:
a) children who cheated adopted a harsher attitude toward cheating while those who resisted cheating became
more lenient toward cheating.
b) children adopted a more lenient attitude toward cheating after competing with each other.
c) children who cheated became more lenient toward cheating while those who resisted cheating adopted a
harsher attitude toward cheating.
d) children became more lenient toward cheating after competing with each other.
5. In the Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) experiment, participants who were paid $20.00 to lie felt less dissonance than
subjects paid $1.00 because receiving $20.00:
a) put participants in a good mood that counteracted dissonance.
b) provided self-verification cues that participants were in fact moral people.
c) was sufficient external justification for lying.
d) allowed subjects to affirm their worth and circumvented dissonance.
6. Dehumanizing the victim increases:
a) dissonance caused by our cruel treatment of others.
b) the likelihood that cruel treatment will continue or even escalate.
c) empathy for the victim.
d) the likelihood that hostilities will end.
7. We can find the effects of dissonance in almost every part of the world:
a) except in countries that are at war.
b) but in some places it is only present in women and not men.
c) and the form is usually the same.
d) but it does not always take the same form.

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8. According to the text, if we spent all our time and energy defending our egos:
a) we would never learn from our mistakes.
b) we would run out of cognitive resources.
c) our relationships would deteriorate.
d) we would have a more complex self-concept.
9. Experiments by Egan and colleagues (2007) did not support the notion that cognitive dissonance developed
evolutionarily.
a) True
b) False
10. In order to learn from our mistakes, we must be able to:
a) circumvent dissonance by affirming our positive qualities.
b) find both internal and external justification for our behaviors.
c) deny the existence of inconsistent beliefs.
d) tolerate dissonance long enough to examine the situation objectively.
11. How people reduce dissonance following a difficult moral decision does not influence whether they will behave more
or less ethically in the future.
a) True
b) False
12. Imagine that you’ve agreed to buy a notoriously unreliable but attractive sports car, instead of a less attractive but
dependable station wagon. Which of the following will reduce dissonance in this situation?
a) knowing that you’ve purchased an unreliable car
b) thinking that you could rely on the station wagon
c) putting a small down payment on the sports car
d) imagining how good you’ll look in the sports car
13. When a counterattitudinal advocacy is accomplished with a minimum of external justification:
a) private attitudes change in the direction of public statements.
b) public statements change in the direction of private attitudes.
c) private attitudes and public statements tend to spread apart.
d) private attitudes are subtly revealed in public statements.
14. Aronson and Carlsmith (1963) told children that they were not allowed to play with a highly desirable toy and
measured the children’s liking for the toy after this rule was obeyed in the experiment’s absence. They found that
children’s liking for the toy:
a) increased when the rule was accompanied by a mild threat.
b) decreased when the rule was accompanied by a severe threat.
c) decreased when the rule was accompanied by a mild threat.
d) increased when the experimenter left the room.
15. Dissonance theory predicts that if we do a favor for someone we dislike, we will:
a) expect a favor in return.
b) come to like that person.
c) feel that we are weak.
d) expect to be taken advantage of.
16. Aronson et al. (1991) found that students who composed arguments in favor of the use of condoms, recited them on
videotape, and were made aware of their own failure to use condoms were:
a) less likely to buy condoms than the students in the other conditions.
b) more likely to buy condoms than the students in the other conditions.
c) less likely to report using condoms than the students in the other conditions.
d) equally likely to buy condoms as the students in the other conditions.
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17. People often behave in ways that run counter to their own beliefs and their best interests.
a) True
b) False
18. Evan is afraid that he might lose Paige. Evan believes that if this happens he will be devastated and severely
depressed. However, when he and Paige do break up, he handles it much better than he thought he would. This illustrates:
a) coping skills underestimation.
b) faulty self-prediction phenomenon.
c) impact bias.
d) self-affirmation theory.
19. Neuroscientists have recently shown that cognitive dissonance and its reduction are reflected in the way the brain
processes information.
a) True
b) False
20. People may say that they like a boring task on which they spent a lot of time and expense due to:
a) justification of effort.
b) post-decision dissonance.
c) lowballing.
d) insufficient punishment.
21. The success of the lowballing technique is due to:
a) the commitment already made to the purchase.
b) the illusion of irrevocability.
c) dissonance reduction techniques.
d) all the above
22. In a study by Gilbert and Ebert (2002) on the Harvard campus, students were asked to rate and then choose between
two photographs. Which of the following is true about the study’s findings?
a) Students who had to make their final choice on the first day liked their photographs least.
b) Students who had to make their final choice on the first day liked their photographs best.
c) Students who had the option of exchanging their photographs within a five-day period liked their photographs
best.
d) There was no difference between the students who chose on the first day and those who had the option of
exchanging their photographs on how much they liked their photographs.
23. Dissonance-reducing behavior can be useful because it:
a) enables us to see ourselves more realistically.
b) enables us to see others more realistically.
c) allows us to maintain self-esteem.
d) allows us to maintain our relationships with others.
24. Large rewards and severe punishments are examples of ____ justification for behavior and result in ____ attitude
change.
a) internal; great
b) external; great
c) internal; little
d) external; little
25. Which of the following concepts explains why the members of Heaven’s Gate did not change their beliefs even in the
face of strong evidence that they were wrong?
a) cognitive dissonance
b) impact bias
c) insufficient punishment
d) self-affirmation theory
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