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ENGL 001B (1)
Chapter 15, 19, 8, 13, 6, 23

ENGL 001B Chapter 15, 19, 8, 13, 6, 23 : ENGL 001B St. Martin's Guide Notes

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University of California - Riverside
Joshua Fenton

CHAPTER 15 ● DESCRIBING ○ Can be evocative, calling up memories or suggesting feelings associated with the subject being described ● NAMING ○ Calls readers’ attention to observable features of the subject being described ○ ex) describing a room ■ Bed, pillows, blankets, dresser, clothes, books, laptop, etc. ○ Readers can put a mental image of the room into their head ○ Uses simple pronouns to describe the weasel ○ Piling up of concrete nouns helps readers imagine what the weasel looked like to Dillard ○ Vivid descriptions: name smells, sounds, tastes, and tactile qualities ● DETAILING ○ What size is it? ○ What is it made of? ○ How many are there? ○ Where is it located? ○ What is its condition? ○ How is it used? ○ Where does it come from? ○ What is its effect? ○ What is its value? ○ To add details to names, add modifiers (adjectives and adverbs, phrases and clauses) ○ MODIFIERS​- make nouns more specific by supplying additional information ○ Convey thoughts and feelings during the encounter ■ Dillard uses judgement to describe that the weasel is a wild animal, not a pet ○ Combine physical details with details characterizing aspects of the individual’s personality ■ ex) “My father, a ​fat​, ​funny​, man with ​beautiful​ eyes and a ​subversive wit…” ○ Physical details suggest a powerful, threatening character ● COMPARING ○ Simile - similarity directly by using the words LIKE or AS to announce the comparison ○ Metaphor - an implicit comparison in which one thing is described as though it were the other ○ Can enhance the vividness of a description by giving readers additional information to help the picture the subject ■ ex) the word ​thin​ to detail the weasel’s body shape ■ Thin is a RELATIVE TERM ■ Dillard gives the readers two images for comparison, a curve and a ribbon, to help them construct a fuller mental image of the weasel ■ Can also convey how the writer feels about a subject ● USING SENSORY DESCRIPTION ○ Rely on the sense of sight more than the other senses ○ Identify objects within their field of vision ■ ex) “On Christmas Eve I saw that my mother had outdone herself in creating a strange menu. She was pulling black veins out of the backs of fleshy prawns. The kitchen was littered with appalling mounds of raw food: A slimy rock cod with bulging eyes that pleaded not to be thrown into a pan of hot oil. Tofu, which looked like stacked wedges of rubbery white sponges. A bowl soaking dried fungus back to life. A plate of squid, their backs crisscrossed with knife markings so they resembled bicycle tires.” ○ Describe what you heard ■ Reporting auditory impressions: name sounds without specifying what the sounds come from ● ex) the murmur of a voice, the rustle of the wind, the squeak of a hinge, etc. ■ Qualitative words specify further ■ synesthesia - applying words commonly used to describe one sense to another ○ Describe what you smelled ■ Odor, vapor, fume, aroma, fragrance, perfume, bouquet, stench, stink ■ Repeated action of bringing the object being smelled to the nose ● Signifies the process of smelling with other acts of intimacy ○ Describe tactile sensations ■ Tend to not name the sensation directly or even to report the act of the feeling ● ex) “A small slab of roughly finished concrete offered a place to stand opposite a square of tar from which a splintered tee protruded.” ○ Describe flavors ■ Sweet (saccharine, sugary, cloying) ■ Sour (acidic, tart) ■ Bitter (acrid, biting) ■ Salty (briny, brackish) ● CREATING A DOMINANT IMPRESSION ○ Dominant impression ■ Mood or an atmosphere that reinforces the writer’s purpose ■ Writers sometimes comment directly in a description to speak for itself ● SENTENCE STRATEGIES FOR DESCRIPTION ○ Must determine what is most relevant, important, or interesting about what they are describing/the role that the description is playing ○ To describe as a participant: ■ As I tried to _______ like the, ______ I was surprised to find that ____. ■ I picked up X. It felt like ______, and it looked/smelled/tasted/sounded like _______. ○ To describe as a spectator: ■ On the other side of _______, a/an ________ appeared/came into view/did something. ■ X talked as he_____,”______,” he said. ○ To reflect on your observations: ■ The most interesting aspect of X is ________, because______: “______” ■ _______ makes X angry. She/he says it’s because ______: ______.” CHAPTER 19 ● ARGUING ○ Asserting a thesis ■ THESIS: asserts/states the main point of any argument you want to make ■ Must be ​clear​ and ​direct ○ Assertion of opinion ■ What is your position on a controversial issue? ○ Assertion of policy ■ What is your understanding of the problem, and what do you think should be done to solve it? ○ Assertion of evaluation ■ What is your judgement of a subject? ○ Assertion of cause ■ What do you think made a subject the way it is? ○ Assertion of story analysis ■ What does a story mean, or what is significant about it? ○ Make arguable assertions ■ Thesis statements in reasoned arguments make possibilities/probabilities, not certainties ● ex) Jem has a Ph.D. in history. ● ex) I am less than five feet tall. ● ex) eucalyptus trees were originally imported into California from Virginia. ○ Statements that assert facts ○ Can be easily verified ■ If a writer asserts something as a fact and attempts to support the assertion with AUTHORITIES or STATISTICS, the resulting essay is not an argument but a report ■ Expressions of personal feelings are not arguable assertions ■ Facts are unarguable because they can definitively proved true or false ○ Use clear and precise wording ■ A thesis is vague if its meaning is unclear ● Might have more than one possible meaning ● ex) “My English instructor is mad” ○ Teacher is mad/insane ■ Pay attention to the way you phrase your thesis and take care to avoid vague and ambiguous language ○ Qualify the thesis appropriately ■ Make appropriate qualifications that suit your writing situation ■ Confident in a strong thesis, state emphatically and unconditionally ● GIVING REASONS AND SUPPORT ○ REASONS = main points for supporting thesis ○ Main kinds of support writers use: ■ Examples ■ Statistics ■ Authorities ■ Anecdotes ■ Textual evidence ○ Following -> discussion and illustration of each kind of support ○ Use representative examples for support ■ Examples may be used for support in all types of argument ■ Use examples to support argument that human costs of illiteracy are high ○ Use up-to-date, relevant, and accurate statistics ■ Uses statistics to support claim ○ Cite reputable authorities on relevant topics ■ To support an argument, writers often cite experts on the subject ■ Respected authority - can add to a writer’s credibility ■ Specially qualified to contribute to the subject you are writing about ■ Informal citation - introduces the authority she quotes, along with a reference to a professional qualification ■ Writers use formal citation to provide a list of works cited at the end of their own writing ○ Use vivid, relevant anecdotes ■ ANECDOTES - brief stories about events/experiences ● If they are relevant to the argument, well told, and true to life, they can be convincing ○ Use relevant textual evidence ■ Carefully selected to be relevant ■ Help readers see the connection between each piece of evidence and reason it supports ■ Usually has more impact if it’s balanced between quotation and paraphrase, and quotations must be integrated into the sense of the argument ● RESPONDING TO OBJECTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES ○ Three basic strategies ■ Acknowledging (aware of readers’ objections and questions) ■ Conceding (modify their position to accept readers’ concerns they think are legitimate) ■ Refuting (argue that readers’ objections may be invalid or that their concerns may be irrelevant) ○ Acknowledge readers’ concerns ■ Show that you are aware of their point-of-view and take it seriously even if you don’t agree with it ■ POSITIVE = acknowledge the readers’ objections by addressing the directly, listing their possible objections, and discussing each one ○ Concede readers’ concerns ■ Decide to accept some of them and incorporate them into your own argument (​concession, all opposing views have merit) ○ Refute readers’ objections ■ Assert that they are wrong and argue against them ■ Does not have to be delivered arrogantly ■ peaceful/constructive way fro informed, well-intentioned people who disagree strongly to air their difference ■ CONCEDE VS. REFUTE (p. 594) ● LOGICAL FALLACIES ○ Fallacies - errors/flaws in reasoning ○ Fallacious arguments seem plausible and often have great persuasive power ○ Not necessarily deliberate efforts to deceive readers ○ Begging the question ■ Arguing that a claim is true by repeating the claim in different words ○ Confusing chronology with causality ■ Assumind that because one thing preceded another, the former caused the latter ○ Either-or-reasoning ■ Assuming that there are only two sides to a question and representing yours as the only correct one ○ Equivocating ■ Misleading with ambiguous word choices ○ False analogy ■ Assuming that because one thing resembles another, conclusions drawn from one also apply to the other ○ Hasty generalization ■ Offering only weak/limited evidence to support a conclusion ○ Overreliance on authority ■ Assuming that something is true because an expert says so ○ Oversimplifying ■ Giving easy answers to complicated questions, by appealing to emotions rather than logic ○ Red herring ■ Attempting to misdirect the discussion by raising an essentially unrelated point ○ Slanting ■ selecting/emphasizing the evidence that supports your claim and suppressing/playing down other evidence ○ Slippery slope ■ Pretending that one thing inevitably leads to another ○ Sob story ■ Manipulating readers’ emotions to lead them to draw unjustified conclusions ○ Straw man ■ Directing the argument against the claim that nobody actually makes ○ Personal attack ■ Demeaning the proponents of a claim instead of refuting their argument ● SENTENCE STRATEGIES FOR ARGUMENT ○ To assert a position ■ When issue/event X happens, most people think _______, but I think ______ because ________. ■ Though others may view it as a matter of ______, for me, the issue hinges on _______. ○ To support a position ■ What makes X problematic/praiseworthy is_______. ■ Because ______, I support/oppose X. ○ To refute an opposing position ■ One problem with position Y is that _______. ■ Some claim position Y, but in reality______. ○ To concede an objection ■ I agree that ________. ■ _______ is certainly an important factor. ○ To concede and refute an objection ■ ______may be true for Y but not for X. ■ Although _______, I think _________. CHAPTER 8 ● JUSTIFYING AN EVALUATION ● Determine the writer’s purpose and audience ○ What seems to be the writer’s main purpose? ○ What does the writer assume about the audience? ○ Access the genre's basic features ■ Read first to identify the subject of the review ■ Describe briefly in the opening paragraphs ■ Readers need different kinds of information from different genres ○ A well supported judgement ■ Identify the judgement the writer asserts, and determine whether the reviewer thinks the subject is good/bad, better/worse, other things in the same genre ■ Announce judgement in THESIS ● ex) What makes X a success/a failure is ______ and ______. ■ Examine thesis to see if the writer asserts an overall judgement ■ Note features of the subject that are being praised and the reasons supporting the judgement ■ Notice whether the reviewer uses compare/contrast ■ Writers may concede (accept) or refute (argue against) alternatives, providing a transition or other cues to alert readers ○ Basic structure of a concession ■ Of course, ________ is an important factor. ■ Granted, ________ must be taken into consideration. ○ Basic structure of refutation ■ Although ________, I think ______. ■ X says ________, but I think ______ because _______. ● Some viewers criticize film because they think that in the end it fails as a romantic comedy ○ A clear, logical organization ■ Read to see if the viewer provides cues to help readers follow the logic of the argument ● ex) ​Scott Pilgrim vs. the World​ can be appreciated and enjoyed by all audiences BECAUSE of its intentive special effects, clever dialogue, and artistic cinematography and editing. (par. 2) ■ Notice how the writer uses logical transitions (because) ■ Where visuals (film stills, cartoons, screen shots, diagrams) are included, determine how they are integrated into the text ○ Make connections: binge-watching ■ Watching multiple episodes of the same show in a single setting ○ Use the basic features ■ A well presented subject; providing information ● Provide the kind of information readers expect to learn from the film reviews (name of director and their well-known films) ■ A well-supported judgement: basing a judgement on criteria ● Assert the overall judgement of the subject in a thesis statement that usually appears early in the review ● Make the overall judgement clear ● Use specific evaluative language ■ An effective response to objections and alternative judgements: conceding and refuting alternative judgements ● Acknowledge an alternative judgement and then either refute or concede it ○ Programs in the genre have been dismissed as _____. But this misses the point because _______. ■ A clear, logical organization: cueing readers ● Interweave plot summary with analysis to support claims about the merits/demerits ○ Consider possible topics: offering a mixed judgement ■ Think of a subject which you have mixed feelings ■ What is your overall judgement? ■ What would you praise about your subject and what would you criticize? ○ Make connections: ideology underlying judgements ■ Ideology - refers to values and beliefs that influence people’s thinking ○ Use the basic features ■ A well-presented subject: introducing a complicated subject ■ A well-supported judgement: defining a criteria ■ An effective response to objections and alternative judgements: singling out a comment for response ● Implied refutation ■ A clear, logical organization: using comparison and contrast ● Use transitional words and phrases or numbered lists ○ Consider possible topics: evaluating a text ■ List several texts you would consider evaluating ● Ex0 essay, children’s book, etc. ○ Make connections; evaluating social media ■ Reflect on your own observations and experiences with social media ○ What do I think? ■ List qualities of the subject that you like and dislike, or list its strengths and weaknesses or advantages and disadvantages ● What makes X good/bad is _______, ________, and ________. ■ What genre or kind of subject is it? ● X is a ______ [name genre or category of subject] ○ What do my readers think? ■ Who are your readers, and why will they be reading your review? ● My readers are ______ and are probably reading my review to learn about the subject/to decide whether to see it, play it, or buy it. ■ What criteria or standards of judgement do you usually use to evaluate things of this kind? ● I expect X to be _______ or _______. ● I dislike it when X is ______. ■ How does your subject compare to other examples of the genre? ● Compared to Y, X has the best/worst ______[name trait.] ○ How can I asserta tentative overall judgement? ■ Begin by naming the subject ■ Identify the kind of subject it is ■ Value the terms to sta
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