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Chapter 7

LIFESCI 2 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Acetyl-Coa, Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate, Citric Acid Cycle


Department
Life Sciences
Course Code
LIFESCI 2
Professor
Esdin Joseph
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7
Where do living organisms get their energy from?
o Autotrophs
Use solar energy to synthesize food compounds
Photosynthesis
Produces
o Heterotrophs
Obtain energy by processing the chemical energy in organic compound
Cellular respiration
Consumers
o Cells obtain energy by processing the chemical energy in organic compound
Cellular respiration
o Food can be carbohydrates, proteins or lipids
Carbohydrates and lipids provide the largest source of ATP
Proteins have too many important functions to be wasted on ATP
o Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration
Most of the ATP is generated within this organelle
Has a double membrane
Outer membrane
Inner membrane
o Cristae: many folds within the inner membrane
Maximizes surface area
Lot of activity
o Lots of proteins of electron transport
chain along the inner membrane
folds
Area between membranes is inner membrane
o Glucose and ATP Production
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + energy(-686 kcal/mol)
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2
A single glucose produces 30 ATP
Two major pathways
Aerobic
Anaerobic
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
Three phosphates with negative oxygen have a lot of energy in the
covalent bond due to close proximity of negative charge
o The release of a single phosphate group releases 7.3
kcal/mol (-, endergonic) and forms ADP (Adenosine
Diphosphate)
Ribose sugar bonded to the phosphate and adenosine nucleotide
Use:
o Exergonic reaction: catabolism of carbohydrates
o Endergonic reaction: Active transport, cell movement,
anabolism
Sodium-Potassium Pump
o Mechanical
Microtubule
o Energy and Electrons from Glucose
Different metabolic processes are used in the breakdown of glucose for
energy
Glycolysis followed by cellular respiration (oxygen dependent)
Glycolysis followed by fermentation (oxygen independent)
Redox Reactions
Oxidation: Reduced compound A (reducing agent) → Oxidized
compound A → LOSS OF ELECTRONS
Reduction: Oxidized compound B (Oxidizing agent) → Reduced
compound B → Gain of Electrons
Nicotineamide Adenine Dinucleotide
o NAD+ is reduced to NADH
o NADH is oxidized to NAD+
Carbon from glucose becomes oxidized to form carbon dioxide
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