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Political Science
Leslie Johns

World Politics Vocabulary Key Terms Chapter 1:  Mercantilism: An economic doctrine based on a belief that military power and economic influence are compliments; applied especially to colonial empires in the 16 -18 centuries. Mercantilist policies favor the mother country over its colonies and over its competitors  Peace of Westphalia: The settlement that ended the 30 years war in 1648; often said to have created the modern state system because it included general recognition of the principles of sovereignty and non-intervention.  Sovereignty: The expectation that states have legal and political supremacy or ultimate authority within their territorial boundaries  Hegemony: The predominance of one nation-state over others  Pax Britanica: British Peace. A century long period beginning in Napoleon’s defeat in 1815 and ending with the outbreak of WW1 in 1914 during which Britain’s economic and diplomatic influence contributed to economic openness and relative peace  Gold Standard: The monetary system that prevailed between about 1970-1914, in which countries tied their currency to gold at legally fixed prices  Treaty of Versailles: The peace treaties between Germany and the allied powers that ended WW1 on June 28 , 1919  NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization—a military alliance created in 1949 to bring together many western European nations, the United States, and Canada, forming the foundation of the American-led military bloc during the cold war. Today, NATO’s role includes handling regional problems and developing and rapid reaction force  Bretton Woods System: The economic order negotiated among allied nations at Bretton Woods, NH, in 1944, which led to a series of cooperative arrangements involving a commitment to relatively low barriers to international trade and investment  Warsaw Pact: A military alliance formed in 1955 to bring together the Soviet Union and its cold war allies in Eastern Europe and elsewhere; dissolved on March 31, 1991 as the cold war ended  Decolonization: The process of shedding colonial possessions, especially the rapid end of the European empires in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean between the 1940’s and the 1960’s  Actors: The basic unit for the analysis of international politics; can be individuals or groups of people with common interests  State: A central authority with the ability to make and enforce laws, rules, and decisions within a specified territory  National interests: Interests attributed to the state itself, usually security and power  Interactions: The ways in which the choices of 2 or more actors combine to produce political outcomes  Bargaining: An interaction in which actors must choose outcomes that makes one better off at the expense of another. Bargaining is redistributive, it involves allocating a fixed sum of value between different actors  Public goods: Individually and socially desirable goods that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption such as national defense  Collective action problems: Obstacles to cooperation that occur when actors have incentives to cooperate but each acts in anticipation that others will pay the cost of cooperation  Iteration: Repeated interactions with the same partners  Linkage: The linking of cooperation on one issue to interactions on a second issue.  Power: The ability of actor A to get actor B to do something that B would otherwise not do; the ability to get the other side to make concessions and to avoid having to make concession oneself  Agenda setting power: A “first mover” advantage that helps an actor to secure a more favorable bargain Chapter 2:  Interests: What actors want to achieve through political action; their preferences over the outcomes that might result from their political choices  Cooperation: An interaction in which 2 or more actors adopt policies that makes at least 1 actor better off relative to the status quo without making others worse off. (Pareto improvement)  Coordination: A type of cooperative interaction in which actors benefit from all making the same choices and subsequently have no incentive not to comply. (e.g. traffic laws, universal language for air traffic)  Collaboration: A type of cooperative interaction in which actors gain from working together but nonetheless have incentives not to comply with any agreement  Public goods: Individually and socially desirable goods that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption such as national defense  Free Ride: To fail to contribute to a public good while benefiting from the contributions of others  Coercion: The threat or imposition of costs on other actors in order to change their behavior. Means of international coercion include military force, economic sanctions, and embargos  Outside options: The alternatives to bargaining with a specific actor  Institutions: Sets of rules known and shared by the community that structure political interactions in specific ways  Anarchy: The absence of a central authority with the ability to make and enforce laws that bind all actors Chapter 3:  War: An event involving the organized use of military force by at least 2 parties that satisfies some minimum threshold of severity  Interstate War: A war in which the main participants are states  Civil War: A war in which the main participants are within the same state, such as the government and a rebel group (intrastate)  Crisis Bargaining: A bargaining interaction in which at least one actor threatens to use force in the event that its demands are not met  Coercive Diplomacy: The use of threats to influence the outcome of a bargaining interaction  Bargaining Range: The set of deals that both parties in a bargaining interaction prefer to the reversion outcome when the reversion outcome is war, the bargaining range is the set of deals that both sides prefer to war  Compellence: An effort to change the status quo through the threat of force  Deterrence: An effort to preserve the status quo through the use of force  Incomplete information: A situation in which parties in a strategic interaction lack information about other parties’ interests and/or capabilities  Resolve: The willingness of an actor to endure costs in order to acquire some good  Risk-Return Tradeoff: In crisis bargaining, the tradeoff between trying to get a better deal and trying to avoid a war  Credibility: Believability. A credible threat is a threat that the recipient believes will be carried out. A credible commitment is a commitment or promise that the recipient believes will be honored  Brinksmanship: A strategy in which adversaries take actions that increase the risk or accidental war, with the hope that the other side will “blink” or lose its nerve, first, and make concessions  Audience costs: Negative repercussions for failing to follow through on a threat or to honor a commitment  Preventive War: A war fought with the intention of preventing an adversary from becoming stronger in the future. Preventive wars arise because states whose power is increasing cannot commit not to exploit that power in future bargaining interactions  First Strike Advantage: The situation that arises when military technology, military strategies, and/or geography gives a significant advantage to whichever state attacks first in a war  Preemptive War: A war fought with the anticipation that an attack by the other side is imminent  Indivisible Good: A good that cannon be divided without diminishing its value Chapter 4:  Bureaucracy: The collection of organizations including the military, the diplomatic corps, and the intelligence agencies that carry out most of the tasks of governance within the states  Interest Groups: Groups of individuals with common interests that organize to influence public policy in a manner that benefits their members  Rally Effect: The tendency of people to become more supportive of their government in response to dramatic international events such as crises or wars  Diversionary Incentive: Incentive that state leaders have to start international crises in order to rally public support at home  Military-Industrial Complex: An alliance between military leaders and the industries that benefit from international conflicts such as arms manufacturers  Democratic Peace: The observation that there are few if any clear cases of war between mature democratic states  Democracy: A political system in which candidates compete for political office through frequent, fair elections in which a sizable portion of the adult population can vote  Accountability: The ability to punish or reward leaders for the decisions they make as when frequent, fair elections enable voters to hold elected officials responsible for their actions by granting or withholding access to political office Chapter 5:  Alliances: Institutions that help their members cooperate militarily in the event of a war  Balance of Power: A situation in which the military capabilities of 2 states or groups of states are roughly equal  Bandwagoning: A strategy in which states join forces with the stronger side in a conflict  Warsaw Pact: A military alliance formed in 1955 to bring together the Soviet Union and its war allies in eastern Europe and elsewhere; dissolved on March 31, 1991 as the cold war ended  League of Nations: A collective security organization founded in 1919 after WW1. The League ended in 1946 and was replaced by the United Nations. All states had veto power, the United States was not a member  United Nations: A collective security organization founded in 1945 after WW2 with over 190 members, the UN includes all recognized states. P5 have veto power (US, China, Britain, France, Russia)  Collective Security Organizations: Broad-based institutions that promote peace and security among their members. Examples include the League of Nations and the United Nations  Genocide: Intentional and systematic killing aimed at eliminating an identifiable group of people such as an ethnic or religious group  Security Council: Main governing body of the United Nations; it has the authority to identify threats to international peace and security and to prescribe the organization’s response including military and/or economic sanctions  Permanent 5: The 5 permanent members of the UNSC; US, Great Britain, Russia, France, China  Veto Power: The ability to prevent the passage of a measure through a unilateral act such as a single negative vote  Peacekeeping operation: An operation in which troops and observers are deployed to monitor a ceasefire or peace agreement  Peace enforcement operation: A military operation in which force is used to make and/or enforce peace among warring parties that have not agreed to end their fighting Chapter 6:  Comparative Advantage: The ability of a country or firm to produce a particular good or service more efficiently than other goods or services, such that its resources are most efficiently employed in this activity. The comparison is to the efficiency of other economic activities the actor might undertake, not to the efficiency of other countries or firms  Absolute advantage: The ability of a country or firm to produce more of a particular good or service than other countries or firms using the same amount of effort or resources  Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory: The Theory that a country will export goods that make intense use of the factors of production in which it is well endowed. Thus, a labor rich country will export goods that make intensive use of labor  Protectionism: The imposition of barriers to restrict imports. Commonly used protectionist devices include tariffs, quantitative restrictions, and other non-tariff barriers  Tariff: A tax imposed on imports; this raises the domestic price of the imported good and may be applied for the purpose of protecting domestic producers from foreign competition  Quantitative restrictions: Quantitative limits places on the import of particular goods  Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade: Obstacles to imports other than tariffs (trade taxes). Examples include restrictions on the number of products that can be imported (quantitative restrictions or quotas); regulations that favor domestic over imported products; and other measures that discriminate against foreign goods or services  Stolper-Samuelson Theorem: The theory that protection benefits the scarce factor of production. The view flows from the Heckscher-Ohlin approach: if a country imports goods that make intensive use of its scarce factor, then limiting imports will help that factor. So in a labor scarce country, labor benefits from protection and loses from trade liberalization  Ricardo-Viner (Specific Factors
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