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Instinctive Behavior unlearned, fixed, stereotyped pattern of activity, displayed by all members of species; caused by genetics; appetitive behavior, activation of stimulus which disinhibits behavior, discharge of act Pertinent Research (vacuum behavior, displacement activity) vacuum- animals exhibit instinctive behaviors even in absence of applicable resources (nest building)displacement- when 2 incompatible response tendencies are aroused, participant may engage in irrelevant behavior Ethological theory behavior's value to the organism; adaptive significance; behavior is striving to be released, sign stimulus engages it; longer without release = lower threshold for triggering itcriticism: this accumulated energy is nowhere to be found Sociobiology study of the biological bases of social behavior; all behaviors are implemented to improve survival, ensure genetic pool Altriusm Towards a relative: promotes survival of genetic poolNon-relative: in humans can be a function of reciprocal altruism Investment in offspring Females more invested, have sexual advantage in that they know it is theirs whereas males do not; greater grief for females and maternal grandparents in the event of a child death; more grief for healthy male child than alternatives Rape reproductive strategy used by low-status males to increase their genetic pool without incurring any child rearing costs Hull v. Freud Both determinists (acts have determinable causes); physiology/psychology complement each other; organisms strive to maintain homeostasis; hedonism; differences- Freud advocated closed energy system, Hull did not- believed prolonged deprivation increases total energy available; Freud did not trust experiments Drive nonspecific energizer of behavior; all drives pool into one, aggregate drive energizes organismexample: fearful rats who were also deprived of food were more startled than those satiated with food Behavior equation behavior = drive x habit Hull's theory could not explain... Fear generalization; elation/depression effectsrevised theory- claimed situations associated with drives become drives themselves; any internal stimulus can acquire drive propertiesMotivation = drive x habit x incentive Approach-avoidance conflict and Miller's conflict model tendency to approach a goal is stronger the nearer the subject is; as animal approaches food, hunger remains constant, habit increases; fear increases closer to stimulus/more similar to aversive stimulus; when goal is distant, approach is dominant, when goal is approached, avoidance is dominant; since hunger is not a function of distance Displacement objects of a behavior change although desire to attain goal remains constant; desire may be projected upon a different goal object; when original stimulus is absent, prevented action be conflict, or inhibited Structural v. Dynamic Constructs Structural: fixed, in order to change there must be interventionDynamic: change as a function of time, no necessary intervening experience Personal Cons
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