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Chapter 5.4

PSYCH 130 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5.4: Iron-Deficiency Anemia, Breast Milk, Dental Caries


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 130
Professor
elizabethdarvick
Chapter
5.4

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Factors Affecting Physical Growth
Heredity
When diet and health are adequate, heredity mostly determines height and rate of
physical growth
Can show catch up growth if negative environmental influences are not severe
Genes control production and sensitivity to hormones
Mutations → deviations in physical size
Nutrition
Breastfeeding vs Bottle Feeding
Breast milk provides the proper nutrition needed in early infancy and helps ensure
healthy physical growth
Transfer of antibodies and infection fighting agents through breast milk enhances
functioning of immune system
Sucking mother’s nipple instead of artificial nipple helps prevent malocclusion and tooth
decay
Transfer of flavors through breast milk smooths transition to solid foods
Breastfed babies have better digestion due to presence of different kind of bacteria in
their intestines
Breastfed babies in poverty stricken regions are less likely to be malnourished and are
more likely to survive the first year of life
Nursing mother is less likely to get pregnant → increase spacing between siblings →
reduce infant and childhood deaths in nations with widespread poverty
Contamination of formula or low grade nutrients (rice water or diluted animal milk) can
lead to illnesses and infant death
Breastfeeding preterm babies is more difficult due to maintenance of sufficient milk
supply with pump until infant can suck at breast
Breastfeeding can be inconvenient for working women b/c of how often babies get
hungry
Nutrition in Childhood and Adolescence
Preschoolers are often picky eaters because their appetites have declined from slowed
growth
Children tend to imitate food choices and eating practices of people they admire
Repeated, unpressured exposure to new food also increases acceptance
Restricting access to tasty foods focuses children’s attention on those food and
increases their desire to eat them
Puberty: rapid growth → increased food intake but eating habits are the poorest
More likely to skip breakfast and consume empty calories rather than nutritious
foods
Frequency of family meals is a powerful predictor of healthy eating
Malnutrition
Marasmus: wasted body condition due to diet low in all essential nutrients
Usually during first year of life when mother is too malnourished to produce
enough breast milk and bottle feeding is also inadequate
Kwashiorkor: unbalance diet very low in protein usually occurring after weaning
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