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Chapter 1

ANTH 2 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Sunscreen, Primatology, Bemba People


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2
Professor
Casey Walsh
Chapter
1

Page:
of 3
9/28/16
Ch. 1 Anthropology in a Global Age
Introduction
Women of Plachimada, India walk to get fresh water
Coca Cola factory in their land using water resources and dumping chemical
waste
⅓ of world population has water scarcity problem
We are growing rapidly as a global village with no borders
Communication, technology, violence, terrorism, booming population
GLOBALIZING
Anthro gives us tools and strategies to understand this shift in world
globalization
What is Anthropology?
anthropos= human and logos= thought, reason, or study in Greek
Study of the full scope of human diversity and the application to help ppl of different
backgrounds better understand one another
Started in 18th and 19th century with European economic and colonial expansion
More contact with other people
Brief Background
Trade through shipbuilding, communication by telegraph, transportation
improvements of steam engine and R&R
Franz Boas, one of founders of American Anthropology became concerned with
U.S. immigration policies as they pertained to immmigrants from Europe
Challenged racialized views of certain groups
Showed those groups could physically adapt to new
environments.
Audrey Richards studied health and nutrition among women and children in
Zambia among Bemba people
Anthropologists study HIV in Africa and immigrant farm workers in U.S.
Study spread of disease, economic development promotion in 3rd world
countries, and diversity awareness in communities.
60% have applied anthropology career
Anthropology’s Unique Approach
Challenges our ideas of what we believe is normal or right=> Ethnocentrism.
Study groups and communities by “walking in their shoes” everyday =>
ethnographic fieldwork
Study both people and the structures of power
Ex. families, governments, economic systems, educational institutions,
militaries, media, and religions
Also ideas of race, ethnicity, gender, class, and sexuality
Believe that all humans connected
Biologically, culturally, economically, and ecologically
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9/28/16
Through what lenses do Anthropologists gain a comprehensive view of human cultures?
“Lenses” to examining humanity => four-field approach
Physical anthropology
Archaeology
Linguistic anthropology
Cultural anthropology
Look at the whole picture of human life => Holism
Culture, biology, history, and language across space and time
Physical Anthropology
Also called biological anthro
How evolved over time and adapted to environment
Common primate ancestor we evolved from
Reconstructing the human fossil record to trace human history of
evolution => Paleoanthropology
Living, nonhuman primates and primate fossils => primatology
No evidence of fixed, distinct, biological races (all one human race)
Archaeology
Excavating and analyzing artifacts
Prehistoric archaeology
Reconstruct human behavior from artifacts.
Ex. campsites, hunting grounds, buildings, burials, and garbage
dumps
Historic archaeology
Relationship between physical artifacts with written or oral records
Ex. slave plantation excavation and deeds, diaries, and census
forms
Linguistic Anthropology
Study of human language past and present
Descriptive linguists
Historic linguists
Sociolinguists
Cultural Anthropology
Behaviors, beliefs, and institutions of everyday life
Ethnographic fieldwork is the heart of cultural anthro
Participant observation
Living and working with people on daily basis
Familiar Strange
Gender, sexuality, race, ethnicity, religion, kinship,
and economical and political systems
Ethnology
Comparing ethnographic data between cultures
What is Globalization, and Why Is It Important for Anthropology?
Globalization
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9/28/16
Worlwide intensification of interactions and increased movement of
money, people, good, and ideas
Corporations relocate and immigration
Globalization: Key Dynamics
Theory of Time-Space Compression
Different regard for space(distances) and time because of advancements
in technology
Communication and transportation
Flexible Accumulation
Corporation moving production facilities to increase profit
Cheap labor, lower taxes, and fewer environmental regulations
Increasing Migration
Movement of people within and between countries
Uneven Development
Not everyone has the same benefits of globalization
○ Poverty
Rapid Change
The quick increase of econ, politics, and culture today
Humans have quickly adapted to our new world to survive
Ex. walk on 2 legs, see in color, opposable thumbs, tan to block
Sun UV rays
Also invented tools
Ex. fire, weapons, air conditioner, sunscreen, oxygen
masks
Humans have an active effect on Earth we cause and need to deal with
Climate change, water scarcity, overpopulation, poverty, biological weapons,
nuclear
Climate Change
Global warming from increase of greenhouse gases
How is Globalization transforming Anthropology?
Due to widespread of advancements, local cultural patterns shift and adapt
All connected
Ideas of gender roles, ethnicity, sexuality, love is challenged
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