MMW 13 Chapter Article Notes: The Mongol Conquests

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Making of the Modern World
MMW 13
Edmond Yi- Teh Chang

MMW 13 – Textbook Notes – The Mongol Conquests & Letter to Pope Innocent IV The Mongol Conquests  Tried to conquer China in the way that outsiders previously did, but the Jurchens did not respond in the usual Chinese way by trying to bribe the Mongols, and instead attacked them  Didn’t necessarily want to conquer China, wanted to extort the Jurchens but they fought  Chin Dynasty only allowed themselves to be extorted in order to buy time to raise armies  Conquered areas destroyed and the government usually became weaker than what was there before  Incorporated local rulers into empires as ‘clients’ while still keeping the main control over the empire  Started fighting against the Jurchens 1211  Jurchen China was the richest state on the Mongol border  Chin had fortified cities and large armies and cavalries  Mongols abandoned all conquered areas in 1212 and returned to Mongolia, and the Chin re-entered the areas  Mongols returned near the end of 1212, fostered revolts in the frontier  Chinggis Khan wounded and they retreated  1213 returned but couldn’t take the capital, so they sailed south and began conquering everything else  1214 reached a peace agreement with the Chin o Chin gave gifts o Emperor gave the daughter of his predecessor for Chinggis  Indirect control of sedentary areas  Chin moved the capital to K’ai-feng, fearing that the Mongols had too much control  Surrounded the city of Chung-tu and starved the people into submission  K’ai-feng fell 1234  Mongols expanded into the west peacefully at first, but when a diplomat was killed, they completely invaded  Mongol invasions in the west completely destroyed the land and populations o Not as many people as China to repopulate the land  1227 Chinggis died Mongol Strategy and Policy  Other nomads: retreat when the opponent is strong, fight when they are weak o Mongols didn’t wait, they just fought when they could  Tactical retreat to ambush armies  Steppe-centered world o They just wanted to conquer the steppe, conquered civilizations in order to steal their wealth o This ideology ended with Chinggis’s grandsons  Terror in order to discourage resistanc
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