POLI 12 Chapter 237-286: World Politics Chapter 6 Notes

80 views10 pages
8 Feb 2017
School
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Textbook Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

World Politics Chapter 6 Notes
Why Does War Occur within States
Civil war: a war in which the main participants are within the same state, such as the
government and a rebel group
Effects of a civil war are so rarely contained
External actors often play a significant role in the onset, duration, and outcome of
civil conflict
Foreign states with an interest in the victory of either the government or
the rebels often give money, arms, training, and /or sanctuary to their
preferred side
Spillover effects creating refugee flow that can burden neighboring states, and
may involve widespread crimes against humanity
Why Rebel?
Root of all civil wars is some conflict of interests between the government and a
subset of the population
Classified by either grievance and greed
Grievances can arise when the policies of the government
discriminate against members of a particular group
Discriminatory policies can lead to vast inequality in
wealth and quality of life among groups
Greed refers to a group’s desire to control more of the country’s
economic resources
conflicts are rooted in individuals’ and groups’ basic interests in their
economic and social well-being, autonomy, and power
Dissatisfied groups can either try to leave the state, alter its policies, or
take to take over the state altogether
Demand can come in form of territory, policy and regime
Separatist: an actor that seeks to create an independent state on territory carved
from an existing state
Arises when a group that is concentrated in a particular region of the
country has grievances with the central government and expects to fare
better under its own governance
Irredentist: an actor that seeks to detach a region from one country and attach it
to another, usually because of shared ethnic or religious ties
Arise when people of on state shate ethnic or religious ties with the people
in the neighboring state and therefore expect that their interests will be
better served under its governance
If leaving is impractical, a group motivated by grievances or greed may threaten
civil war in order to change the policies pursued by the central government
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Dissatisfied groups might seek to seize control of the central government and
establish a new regime( or restore an old one)
Political exclusion of a significant group is a common reason that rebels
may seek to overturn the existing polity
Clashes over control of the central government are also common in newly
independent states, when the retreat of the colonial power creates a space
for groups to fight over control of the new state
Often discussion of rebel groups often form on the basis of ethnic and/or religious
divisions
Isn’t cause only by ethnic/religious differences but when policies are
enacted that heavily discriminates one economically/politically/socially
When Does Dissatisfaction Lead to Armed Opposition
Three primary factors help explain the emergence of organized, armed opposition
groups: features of the group and its interests, features of the country in which the
group resides, and features of the international system that influence the
possibilities for external support
Group-Level Explanations
Ability of groups to organize is aided by the nature of the interest in which
they are fighting
Individuals may be motivated by very strong religious or ideological
beliefs that lead them to see contributing to the cause as beneficial in its
own right
No incentive to free ride and collective action problem disappears
Individuals from the same ethnic or religious group may have higher
levels of trust or collective solidarity and feel a stronger social
disincentive to free ride when dealing with one another
Majority of civil wars involve mobilization along ethnic lines,
meaning that the rebels and the government tend to draw support
from different ethnic groups
Pattern may reflect interethnic tensions over the divisions of
wealth and political power of the status of a particular religion,
language, or culture
Individual seek protection from their own kind leading to
polarization and possible manipulation from the elites
Some traditional societies may also be organized into tribes which ar
substate groups with familial or ethnic ties
Tribes generally have their own systems of formal or informal
governance, which facilitates collective action
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
In the absence of strong ethnic ties or ideological motivations, groups that
seek to mobilize against the government have to find other ways to
encourage participation
Can compensate supporters materially
May amass fighters is through forcible recruitment, or kidnapping
Country-Level Factors
Country’s political institutions or regime type
The incentive to threaten or use violence depends in part of
whether the normal political process allows peaceful methods for
redressing grievances
Democratic countries have lower risk of experiencing wars since
people can run and secure their rights through court system
The relationship between a country's political institutions and civil
war is complicated by a second consideration: the ability of a rebel
group to form depends in part on the government’s repressive
capacity
How easily it can prevent, deter, or eliminate armed
opposition
Reason to believe that the risk of civil war is highest in countries
that are neither fully democratic nor strongly autocratic, because
they lack both effective channels of peaceful participation and an
effective apparatus of repression
Wealth is a huge factor
Poor countries are much more likely to experience civil war than
rich countries
Many interpretation
One natural interpretation is that people in poor
countries have greater reason to be unhappy with
their lot
Poverty breed desperation and a lack of
economic opportunities can also lead to a
large pool of unemployed young men who
can be recruited as fighters
Another hinges on government’s capacity to prevent
and defeat rebellions
Those that make it easier or harder for government to find and defeat
rebels
Civil wars are more likely to happen in populous countries since
they can recruit more people, cover larger areas that become harder
to police
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class