PSYCH 112 Chapter 3: Chapter 3 (Malley) Text Notes

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21 Oct 2015
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Chapter 3 Malley Text Notes
- Nervous system consists of mostly glial cells and neurons
CNS glia (neuroglia)
- A kind of connective tissue
- Insulate neurons, provide protection, structure, nutrition, and repair
- Microglia: immune system of CNS, help to clean dead cells
- Oligodendrocyte: extrude myelin
- Astrocyte: provide nutrients to neurons, dispose of neural waste, and maintain
connections between neurons
- Radial glia: important during brain development, for a radial network of fibers on which
neurons creep along to reach their destination within the brain
PNS glia
- Schwann cells: like oligodendrocytes for PNS
- Satellite cells : like astrocytes for PNS
- Enteric glia : ae thought to play a role in digestive processing
Neurons:
- Process information
oSum inputs from excitatory and inhibitory sources
oComparing that sum to a threshold
- Communicate the result of that information, via:
oAxonal communication : signal propagation down the axon
Can be represented in two ways:
The Hodgkin-Huxley model (ion exchange model) represents an
action potential as the conduction of an electrical charge via the
movement of ions
oPrimary ions are sodium and potassium, via sodium-
potassium transporters
For every two potassium ions pumped in, three
sodium ions are umped out
Creates a voltage (resting potential is about
-70mV)
The Soliton model (a soliton is a mathematical model of a pressure
wave) regard the action potential as a ripple of the cell membrane’s
density and thickness down the axon
oDuring an action potential, a pressure wave created at th
axon hillock causes the lipid molecules to convert from
liquid to gel state, which is propagated
oUseful for explaining temperature observations of neural
activity which is unexplained by the Hodgkin-Huxley
model
oWhen a neuron fires, ion channels open up and positive ions outside explode into
the cell
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