Metabolism & Bioenergetics

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Biochemistry & Molecular Bio.
David Gross

Chapter 12 Notes: Metabolism and Bioenergetics • chemoautotrophs obtain all their metabolic building materials and free energy from simple inorganic compounds • photoautotrophs need CO2, water, nitrogen, and sunlight • heterotrophs directly or indirectly obtain all building materials and free energy from organic compounds produced by chemo- or photoautotrophs • cells catabolize large molecules to release free energy & then use free energy to anabolize large molecules • metabolism is the set of all catabolic and anabolic activities of an organism 12.1 Food and Fuel • the 4 essential macromolecular polymers taken in by heterotrophs are: o nucleic acids o polysaccharides o proteins o triacylglycerols • digestion reduces the polymers to their monomeric components: o amino acids o nucleotides o monosaccharides o fatty acids • this breakdown doesn’t yield significant amounts of free energy • cells take up the products of digestion o digestion takes place in the mouth stomach and small intestine, is catalyzed by hydrolytic enzymes  salivary amylase begins breakdown of starch  gastric & pancreatic proteases degrade proteins  lipases catalyze release of fatty acids from triacylglycerols o products of digestion absorbed by cells lining intestine  active transporters bring in monosaccharides  symport systems bring inA.A.’s & di- & tripeptides  highly hydrophobic lipids diffuse through membrane o some products reform inside cell  fatty acids re-form triacylglycerols  fatty acids linked to cholesterol, form cholesteryl esters  they are packaged together with proteins to form lipoproteins  released into lymphatic circulation before entering bloodstream o water-s
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