ANTH 3110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Indian Termination Policy, Acculturation

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27 Jun 2019
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Champagne and Dunbar-Ortiz
ANTH 3110, Summer 2019
Colonization: any kind of external control; an expression for the subordination of Indian peoples and
their rights since early contact with Europeans
After 1763, Indigenous Peoples retained right to sell land to colonial govt and Indians lived on land
at the discretion of the king
Colonizing powers sought to Christianize Indians
North America, fur trade during colonial and early US periods was a major source of wealth
production
Sought to exploit labor of Indigenous peoples
Extract resources and wealth from colonial territories and transport wealth to benefit
mother country
Assimilation and Integration are expression used in the post-colonial period
Indian peoples became independent democratic nation states
Assimilation refers to socializing and acculturation - Indian people to taking up national cultures
and institutions
Integration refers to process of Indian people abandoning their own nations and cultures, and
accepting the government, culture, and property laws of the nation states
In Mexico, majority of people who participate in national govt, economy, and culture are also
descendants of indigenous nations
Mestizo citizens accepted assimilation and integration path
Many people in US, Canada, and Mexico continue to choose to uphold significant aspects of
indigenous life
Indigenous peoples live in multiple tribal and national contexts, which are not fully captured by
assimilation, integration, or colonization
History of the Sioux peoples' fight for their homeland
1805 treaty of peace and friendship between Sioux Nation and the US govt
1834 competition in the fur trade led Oglala Siox to move away from Upper Missouri to Upper
Platte near Fort Laramie
1846 7k Sioux moved south
1851 Fort Laramie Treaty as US bought land for a fort and led to decade of war between 2 parties,
ending with Peace Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868
Sioux had become enveloped in fur trade and dependent on European goods
That replaced their traditional crafts
Constant attacks, disease, starvation
1870-6 buffalo were purposely exterminated by the army after Sioux were fighting for survival
Survival dependent on rations and commodities promised by US in 1868 treaty
Discovery of gold led to US govt seizing the Black Hills lands
1877 army drove Sioux out of Nebraska
1888 proposal to reduce Sioux nations to six small reservations for land (broke historical
relationships between clans and communities of Sioux nation)
1903 Lone Wolf v Hitchcock ruled that Congress had "plenary" power to manage Indian property
By 1920s, near all prime grazing lands came to be occupied by non-Indian ranchers
Early 1950s, US developed termination policy, with legislation ordering gradual eradication of
every reservation and even the tribal governments
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