GEOG 1070 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: In Situ Conservation In India, Indicator Species, Species Richness

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GEOG 1070: Contemporary Environmental Issues – Reading Notes Chapter 16
Species – a group of distinct organisms that are capable of interbreeding wit one
another in nature to produce fertile offspring but don’t interbreed with other
Biodiversity – the variations amongst organisms
Species richness – the number of species
Endemic species – not found anywhere else in the world – are endangered
Biotic pollution – introduction of foreign species into an ecosystem in which it
does not evolve
The U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992 imposed a moratorium on importing
rare bird species
Amphibians are indicator species that provide an early warning of environmental
damage with the potential to affect other species
At least 42% of of frog populations are declining
Conservation biology – the scientific study of how humans impact organisms
and of the development of ways to protect biological diversity
Single large habitat is better at conserving animals than smaller fragmented
Conservation biologists think its better to preserve habitats than individual
In situ conservation - concentrates on preserving biological diversity in nature
oPriority is to identify and protect sites that b=harbor a great deal of
o(on site conservation)
ex situ conservation – consuming biological diversity in human-controlled
oaka zoo breeding and seed storage
o(off site conservation)
In situ conservation is conserving and managing the ecosystem as a whole is
the best way to preserve biological diversity
Aka national parks, marine sanctuaries, wildlife refuges, forests
Not effective in poorer countries because there is little money or expertise to
manage them
Many protected areas are also in mountains/tundras but have very little
biological kinds of species
Habitat corridors are stripes of habitats that connect isolated habitat fragments
Restoration ecology – study of human damaged ecosystem with the goal of
returning it as close as possible to its former state
Zoos, aquaria, and botanical gardens save animals on the brink of extinction
Artificial insemination are sperm collected from a suitable male of a rare species
impregnated into a female
Embryo transfer - a female of a rare species is treated with fertility drugs which
cause her to produce multiple eggs
Only 1/10 of reintroductions using animals raised in captivity is successful
Before reintroduction scientists now examine the reasons they got extinct
Plants stored in seed banks remain stagnant to evolution which might make
them less fight for survival amongst reintroduction to nature
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