2.1 principles and guidelines
Eating pattern: customary intake of foods and beverages over time.
I. Diet-planning principles
a. Adequacy: providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts
sufficient to maintain health
b. Balance: providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the
c. kCalorie control: management of food energy intake
d. Nutrient density: a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy
it provides. The more nutrients and the fewer kCalories, the higher the nutrient
i. Empty- Kcalorie foods: a popular term used to denote foods that
contribute energy but lack protein, vitamins and minerals.
ii. Nutrient profiling: ranking foods based on their nutrient composition
e. Moderation: enough food but not too much
i. Solid fats: fats that are not usually liquid at room temperature. Found in
food derived from animals. Contains more trans fat than oils
ii. Added sugars: sugars that are added to foods during processing.
f. Variety: eating a wide selection of foods within the food groups
2.2 Diet- planning guides
Food groups plans: diet planning tools that sort foods into groups based on nutrient content and
then specify that people should eat amounts of foods from each group
I. Notable Nutrients
a. Legumes: plants of the bean and pea family, with seeds that are rich in protein
compared with other plant derived foods
b. Nutrients of concern
i. Dietary fiber
ii. Vitamin D
c. Discretionary kCalories: the Kcalories remaining in a person’s energy allowance
after consuming enough nutrient dense foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day d. Serving equivalents:
i. Serving sizes: the standardized quantity of a food; such information allows
comparisons when reading food labels and consistency when following
the dietary guidelines
ii. Portion sizes: the quantity of a food served or eaten at one meal; not a
e. Recommendations V.Actual intakes
i. Healthy eating index: a measure that assesses how well a diet meets the
recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines forAmericans.
II. Exchange lists
a. Exchange lists: diet planning tools that organize foods by their proportions of
carbs, fat, protein. Foods on any single list can be used interchangeably.
III. From guidelines to groceries
Processed foods: foods that have been treated to change their physical, chemical,
microbiological or sensory properties.
Fortified: the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present in
a. Refined: the process by which