BLY 207 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5a: Mitral Valve, Respiratory Acidosis, Tricuspid Valve

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Published on 2 Mar 2017
School
USA
Department
Biology
Course
BLY 207
Professor
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The circulatory system includes the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system (the
lymphatic system is also part of the immune system).
The circulatory system helps maintain homeostasis via:
Transportation of materials within the body and removal of waste products (glucose,
oxygen, vitamins, minerals)
Defense against pathogens and foreign agents using the lymphatic system
Temperature regulation
o Body temperatures below 97F and above 104F can cause disorientation
o Temperature above 108F can cause convulsions and permanent cell damage
o If body temperature is elevated, peripheral blood vessels dilate and warm blood flows
to the surface of the body
Maintenance of acid/base balance
o The pH of extracellular fluids is maintained between very narrow limits - usually
between 7.35 and 7.45
o Alkalosis - elevation of body pH above 7.45
o Acidosis - pH below 7.35
Severe acidosis (pH below 7.0) causes:
CNS function deteriorates
Cardiac contractions grow weak and irregular
Peripheral vasodilation, caused by a damaged CNS, leads to hypotension
(low BP) and neurogenic shock
Potentially death
o Buffers are chemical components in the blood that help to correct a pH that is too
high or too low - this is done by:
protein buffer systems (hemoglobin)
carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
the phosphate buffer system
o pH is also regulated by the kidneys and the lungs and deficiencies in these organs can
lead to metabolic acidosis (kidneys) or respiratory acidosis (lungs)
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
The cardiovascular system is a transport system consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
Heart
Located in the thoracic cavity, directly behind the sternum
Divided into four chambers that are connected by valves
o Right Atrium - pumps to right ventricle
Connected to right ventricle by the tricuspid valve
o Right Ventricle - pumps to lungs
o Left Atrium - pumps to left ventricle
Connected to left ventricle by the bicuspid valve
o Left Ventricle - pumps to body
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