C C 306M Chapter 4 Notes.docx

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Classical civilization
C C 306M
Todd Curtis

Chapter 4: Musculoskeletal System Functions of the skeleton:  Provides support and shape to the body through a framework of bones and cartilage  Stores calcium and other minerals  Produces certain blood cells within blood marrow Functions of the muscles:  Supply the forces that make body movements possible  Provide a protective covering for the internal organs  Produce body heat Orthopedics – study and treatment of the musculoskeletal system COMBINING FORMS Ankyl/o Crooked or stiff Arthr/o, articul/o Joint Brachi/o Arm Cervic/o Neck Chondr/o Cartilage (gristle) Cost/o Rib Crani/o Skull Dactyl/o Digit (finger or toe) Fasci/o Fascia (a band) Femor/o Femur Fibr/o Fiber Kyph/o Humped-back Lei/o Smooth Lord/o Bent Lumb/o Loin (lower back) My/o, myos/o, muscul/o Muscle Myel/o Bone marrow or spinal cord Oste/o Bone Patell/o Knee cap Pelv/i Pelvis (basin) or hip bone Radi/o Radius Rhabd/o Rod-shaped or striated (skeletal) Sarc/o Flesh Scoli/o Twisted Spondyl/o, vertebr/o Vertebra Stern/o Sternum (breastbone) Ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o Tendon (to stretch) Thorac/o Chest Ton/o Tone or tension Uln/o ulna Chapter 4: Musculoskeletal System ANATOMIC TERMS RELATED TO BONES: Appendicular skeleton – bones of the shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities Axial skeleton – bones of the skull, vertebral column, chest and hyoid bone (U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue) Bone – specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes; forms the skeleton Types of bone tissue:  Compact bone – tightly solid bone tissue that forms the exterior of bones  Spongy bone – mesh=like bone tissue found in the interior or bones and surrounding the medullary cavity; cancellous bone Classification of bones:  Long bones – bones of the arms and legs  Short bones – bones of the wrist and ankles  Flat bones – bones of the ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis and skull  Irregular bones – bones of the vertebrae and face  Sesamoid bones – round bones found near joins (the patella) Parts of a long bone:  Epiphysis – wide ends of a long bone (physis = growth)  Diaphysis – shaft of a long bone  Metaphysis – growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone  Endosteum – membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone  Medullary cavity – cavity within the shaft of the long bones; filled with bone marrow  Bone marrow – soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones  Red bone marrow – functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells and platelets; found in the cavities of most bones in infants and in flat bones in adults  Yellow bone marrow – gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells  Periosteum – a fibrous, vacular membrane that covers the bone  Articular cartilage – a gristle-like substance on bones where they articulate ANATOMIC TERMS RELATED TO JOINS AND MUSCLES: Articulation – a joint; the point where two bones come together Bursa – a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid Disk or disc – a flat, plate-like structure composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue between the vertebrae that reduces friction Nucleus pulposus – the soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervertebral disk Ligament – a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone Synovial membrane – membrane lining the capsule of a joint Synovial fluid – join-lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane Muscle – tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of an organ or party of the body  Striated muscle – voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton; skeletal muscle  Smooth muscle – involuntary muscle found in internal organs  Cardiac muscle – muscle of the heart Origin of a muscle – muscle end attached to the bone that doesn’t move when the muscle contracts Insertion of a muscle – muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts Tendon – a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone Fascia – a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle ANATOMIC POSITION AND TERMS OF REFERENCE: Anatomic or anatomical position – a term of reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions or directions Body plane – reference plans for indicating the location or direction of body parts  Coronal plane – vertical division of the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions; frontal plane  Sagittal plane – vertical division of the body into right and left portions  Transverse plane – horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions Directional terms:  Anterior (A) – front of the body; ventral  Posterior (P) – back of the body; dorsal Chapter 4: Musculoskeletal System  Anterior-posterior (AP) – from front to back; as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam  Posterior-anterior (PA) – from back to front; as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam  Superior – situated above another structure, toward the head; cephalic  Inferior – situated below another structure, away from the head; caudal  Proximal – toward the beginning or origin of a structure  Distal – away from the beginning or origin of a structure  Medial – toward the middle (midline)  Lateral – toward the side  Axis – the imaginary line that runs through the center of the body or a body part Body positions:  Erect – normal standing position  Decubitus – lying down, especially in a bed; lateral decubitus is lying on the side (decumbo = to lie down)  Prone – lying face down and fl
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