GEO 303 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Halide Minerals, Sulfide Minerals, Silicate Minerals

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10 May 2016
Geo Chapter 4 Notes:
Introduction, Overview
oRocks are familiar as the natural material of the earth, commonly
exposed in areas of little or no vegetation cover
oComposed of minerals
oThree types of Rock:
oIgneous: Material cooled and solidified from a melted condition
oSedimentary: material transported and deposited by various means
oMetamorphic: either one, characteristics have changed, typically
under conditions of deep burial
oRock cycle: any of these rock types may be converted by recycling into
any other type
oSeveral implications of this cycle:
The entire earth has been present for the past 4.55 billion
years, except meteorites
Because of recycling, highly unlikely we’ll find a preserved rock
from the formation of the earth
No fixed schedule for recycling, some are old, some are new.
Recycling requires the expenditure of energy, mostly earth’s
internal energy. Sunlight, and energy from gravity are also
Earths heat energy drives the motions of tectonic plates
causing continents to drift, mountain belts to be uplifted, etc.
Definition of Rock:
oA rock is any coherent naturally occurring substance, generally
composed of minerals
Definition of Mineral:
oIn order for a substance to be a mineral, it must satisfy four criteria
Naturally occurring
Rules out man made objects
Never were nor are living
Minerals with carbon are in a gray area
Definite chemical makeup
Each species contains specific elements in definite
Crystalline in nature
The composed atoms are arranged in an orderly
network at specific distances and angles to one another
Physical Properties:
oEach mineral has a discrete chemistry, and can be identified by
chemical testing. However, this isn’t helpful in the field. Therefore,
various physical tests that can be done to help identify minerals.
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