HIS 315K Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Diego De Landa, Mendicant Orders, Patronato Real
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A. Reflection (20 points)
I think art can be incredibly useful when studying the past. It reveals certain
parts of history that no amount of words could and provides a visual representation
of the times. However, I do not think it is as useful as a written documents. It could
be that I am not a very visual person, but some art I am not able to understand by
itself. I typically need an explanation as to its importance or historical context. I find
art to be a useful supplement but not very telling all on its own. For example, the
Huejotzingo Altarpiece was a masterpiece. Looking at it I could see the magnificence
and understood that it would serve as a way to honor God and the Catholic Church.
However, without the explanations both before and after the picture, I would not
have known how it impacted the indigenous peoples.
We do need to analyze art different than primary sources. One of the great
things about a picture is that it is not biased. The meaning of the thing being
depicted can be biased toward anything, but the picture itself is just an accurate
representation of something during its time. Similar to when analyzing art, when
analyzing written primary sources it is important to know who is writing them and
the historical context. However, it is also important to acknowledge the bias that will
undoubtedly occur throughout it. The picture of the Huejotzingo Altarpiece was
stunning and helpful in understanding just a portion of how it must have looked to
the Mexicas who saw it. It was also nice not to have to beware of any bias while
looking at it, although I did have to be on the look out for bias in the other primary
sources we read.
B. Identification (40 points)
1. The Spanish and Portugal Crowns maintained control over the Church with
Patronato real and padroado. Patronato real was the papal bulls that gave
authority to the Spanish royalty over the Church, conversion of the natives,
and education. Padroado was the papal bulls that gave authority to the
Portuguese royalty over bishoprics and their appointments, missionaries, and
the “evangelical efforts among the Indians.”
The main difference between
the two was that the Portugal Crown did not have all the wealth and
influence that the Spanish Crown did.
2. “Regulars” were a certain type of missions that were sent by Mendicant
orders. They took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The Twelve were
regulars who arrived in New Spain 1524 and led the conversion efforts. Their
Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America, 9th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
Burkholder and Johnson, 104-105.
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efforts were slowed because of the numerous language, dispersed native
communities, and the similarities between Christianity and the natives’
However, many natives welcomed Christianity and even found it
In Mexico in 1559, there were about 800 friars mainly focused
on coverting the native priests/chieftains with the correct belief that these
conversion would help to convert the others.
With their belief that the
Indians were treated unfairly, Missions often found themselves at odds with
the Spanish locals who needed them for labor. Eventually, both the Spanish
and Portuguese monarchs began to restrict the power of the churches to
3. The Spiritual Conquest was the movement to convert natives and peoples of
other religions, into Christians in Latin America. It was led by friars through
the Indian Inquisition, the Extirpation of Idolatries, and the Spanish
Inquisition. The Conquest served to make sure that heretics and apostates
were discovered and made to repent and/or were punished because, if left
alone, they would influence the greater population.
Friars, evangelists, and
The Inquisition were pivotal during The Spiritual Conquest. However, despite
its effort to create a society of Catholics, it ultimately led to the creation of
hundreds of different local forms of Christianity based off of the natives’ past
religion and culture.
4. The Inquisition was created in Spain in 1480 and was later used in Spanish
America to investigate “New Christians” who were suspected of practicing
their former religion. It was a powerful organization within Colonial Latin
America and was not seen as a threat to most Spaniards were thought their
purpose was justified. Rarely did they sentence the condemned to death, but
it did occur on certain occasions when a person would not recant. The
Inquisition mostly made the condemned commit an “act of faith” in public in
order to repent.
The Portuguese also had an Inquisition but they did not
Burkholder and Johnson, 105.
Burkholder and Johnson, 107.
Burkholder and Johnson, 105.
Burkholder and Johnson, 110.
Burkholder and Johnson, 184-187.
Burkholder and Johnson, 181.
Burkholder and Johnson, 117-118.
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