MAN 337 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Theory X And Theory Y, Motivation, Process Control

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4 Jan 2017
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1. Chapter 5: Motivation Concepts
a. Motiatio: the poesses that aout fo a idiidual’s itesit, dietio ad pesistee of
effort toward attaining a goal
i. Theories of Motivation
1. Hierarchy of Needs Theory: hierarchy of 5 needs (Maslow)
a. Physiological: hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, etc
b. Safety: security and protection from physical and emotional harm
c. Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship
d. Esteem: internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and
achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition and
attention
e. Self-actualization: drive to become what one of capable of becoming;
iludes goth, ahieig oe’s potetial ad self-fulfillment
f. As each need is fulfilled, the next one dominates; to motivate
someone, you need to know which level of need they are one
g. Maslow provided no empirical evidence to support this hierarchy
2. Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor)
a. Maage’s ies of the atue of hua eigs ae ased o
groupings of assumptions in each X and Y
b. Theory X (negative):
i. Managers believe that employees inherently dislike work and
must be directed or coerced
c. Theory Y:
i. Managers assume that employees can view work as being
natural as rest or play and can therefore learn to accept or
seek responsibility
ii. McGregor believed that Theory Y is more valid
d. Support is lacking for these theories
3. Two-factor theory or motivation-hygiene theory (Herzberg):
a. Reason people like their job are completely different from why they
dislike their job; intrinsic factors (motivators) positive; external
(hygiene) negative
b. Hygiene factors: conditions surrounding the job such as quality of
supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions and
relationships with others
i. Whe the’e adeuate, people ill eithe e satisfied o
dissatisfied
c. Bottom line: getting rid of dissatisfaction does not necessarily work
4. MClellad’s Theo of Needs:
a. Need for achievement (drive to excel and succeed)
i. High achievers perform best when they perceive their
probability of success as 0.5
ii. Not necessarily best managers because want to achieve for
themselves not others
b. Need for power (need to make others behave a certain way)
i. High need for power best for managers
c. Need for affiliation (desire for friendly/close relationships)
5. Cognitive Evaluation theory:
a. Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work effort
that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall
motivation
i. Why? One theory is that one the person loses control over
his/her own behavior
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