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Chapter 1

NTR 306 Chapter 1 Notes.docx

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University of Texas at Austin
NTR 306
Deanna Staskel

Chapter One: An Overview of Nutrition Simple key terms:  Nutrition – the science of the nutrients in foods and their actions within the body; the study of human behaviors related to food and eating  Food – products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues  Chronic diseases – diseases characterized by slow progression and long duration  Diet – the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks 1.1 Food Choices  Preferences  Habit  Ethnic heritage and regional cultures  Social interactions  Availability, convenience and economy  Positive and negative associations  Emotions  Values  Body weight and image  Nutrition and health benefits o Functional foods – foods that contain bioactive components that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions o Phytochemicals – non-nutrient compounds found in plants 1.2 Nutrients The ongoing growth, maintenance and repair of the body’s tissues depend on the energy and the nutrients received from foods. Nutrient composition of foods:  Solid materials (mostly carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins)  Six classes of nutrients o Carbohydrates o Lipids (fats) o Proteins o Vitamins o Minerals o Water Nutrient composition of the body:  60% water in men and women  18-21% of fat in young men  23-26% of fat in young women  Carbs, proteins, vitamins, minerals and other minor constituents making up the remainder Chemical composition of nutrients: The simplest of the nutrients are MINERALS (each mineral is a chemical element); next simplest if WATER.  Inorganic – contain no carbon  Organic – contain carbon Chapter One: An Overview of Nutrition Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Minerals Inorganic Nutrients: Minerals  Water    Organic Nutrients: Carbohydrates    Protein     Lipid    Vitamins    Essential Nutrients: Essential nutrients – nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body can’t make them for itself in sufficient quantity Energy Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate, fat and protein Energy yielding nutrients – nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use Macronutrients – required in large amounts (carbs, proteins and fat) Micronutrients – required in small amounts (vitamins and proteins) Calories – units by which energy is measured  1000 cal = 1 kcal  1 kcal is necessary to raise the temp of 1 kg of water 1°C  Nutrients o Carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g o Fat = 9 kcal/g o Protein = 4 kcal/g Energy density – a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the weight of the food (kcal/g)  High energy density = weight gain  Low energy density = weight loss  *alcohol has energy but hinders growth and maintenance of the body o Yields 7kcal/g when metabolized How to think metric! Most food labels and recipes provide “dual measures” *household measures (cups, quarts, etc.)+ and “metric measures” *liters, grams, etc.+  Joule (J) – work energy measurement  Kcalorie (kcal) – heat energy measurement  Kcal x 4.2 = kJ  kJ x 0.24 = kcal Volume: Liters (L) Weight: Grams (g)  1 L = 1000 mL  1 g = 1000 mg  0.95 L = 1 quart  1 g = 0.04 ounce (oz)  1 mL = 0.03 fluid ounces  1 oz = 28.35 g  240 mL = 1 cup  100 g = 3.5 oz  0.5 cup = 120 mL  1 kg = 1000 g  1 kg = 2.2 pounds (lb)  454 g = 1 lb Chapter One: An Overview of Nutrition Energy in the body: If body doesn’t use the nutrients (carbs, fat, proteins) to fuel its current activities, it converts them into storage compounds.  Increase in energy stores and weight gain if more energy is consumed than expended Other roles of energy-yielding nutrients: Provides raw material for building the body’s tissues and regulating its many activities! VITAMINS:  Organic but doesn’t provide energy  13 total vitamins  Almost every action in the body need the help of vitamins  Vulnerable to destruction by heat, light and chemical agents  Strategies of cooking vegetables at moderate temp for short times and using small amounts of water help to preserve the vitamins MINERALS:  Inorganic and doesn’t provide energy  Found in fluids of the body and in structures like bones and teeth  16 essential minerals  Indestructible and need not be handled in special care  Can be bound by substances that interfere with the body’s ability to absorb them  Can be lost during food-refining processes WATER:  PARTICIPATION IN ALL LIFE PROCESSES 1.3 The Science of Nutrition Genome – complete set of genetic material (DNA) in an organism Nutritional genomics – the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the interactions between diet and disease Conducting Research: Anecdote – personal account of an experience or event (not reliable scientific information) Hypothesis – an unproven statement that tentatively explains the relationships between 2 or more variables Subjects – people or animals participating in a research project  Experimental group – receives the real treatment  Control group – receives the placebo (fake treatment)  Randomization  Sample size must be large Placebo – an inert, harmless medication given  Placebo effect – a change that occurs in response to expectations about the effectiveness of a treatment that actually has no pharmaceutical effects Blind experiment – the subjects don’t know whether they are members of the experiment or control group Double-blind experiment – neither the subjects nor the researchers know which are the experimental or control group Analyzing Research Findings: Variables – factors that change Correlation – simultaneous increase (positive correlation), decrease (negative correlation) or change in two variables Chapter One: An Overv
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