Michael levi risks:: contamination of water uses large amount of freshwater. Many wells located in dry environments fracking requires many tanker truck trips burning diesel. Wi largest supplier of sand to fracking operations large input of energy chemicals earthquakes air pollution lowered property values. Unforeseeable long-term consequences shale formation: fine grained sedimentary rock; laminated, made up of many thin layers. fissile appeal of natural gas: Cleaner burning could be transition fuel between coal and renewable energy enormous domestic reserves (100-200 years with current technology) Natural gas is less carbon-intensive than coal. Way gas is produced continuing investment renewable energy is making progress. Leakage of methane is not as important as some have argued because its short lifetime in the atmosphere limits its impact on anthropogenic climate change . Methane boosted short-term warming, but had little impact on peak temperatures. Week 13 readings call to close state"s (ca) last nuclear plant was widely applauded; should not have been.