NURS 324 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Fragile X Syndrome, Near-Sightedness, Pectus Excavatum

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* abnormal changes in size, shape, & organization. * reversible replacement of one mature cell by another cell type. * usually initiated by chronic irritation and inflammation. * occurs if the cell is unable to maintain homeostasis. * causes of cellular injury- physical agents (mechanical forces and extreme temperatures), chemical agents (pollution, lead, and drugs), radiation, biologic agents (viruses, bacteria, and parasites), and nutritional imbalances. * apoptosis-the cell shrinks, process of eliminating unwanted cells. * ischemia- decreased blood flow to tissue or an organ. Can leave cells damaged to the extent they can"t survive, a condition called necrosis. * necrosis- the cells swell and burst, process of eliminating unwanted cells. * liquefaction- caustic enzymes dissolve and liquefy necrotic cells. * caseous- necrotic cells disintegrate but the cellular debris remains in the area for months or years. * fat- lipase enzymes break down intracellular triglycerides into fatty acids.

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