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BIOL 2P95 (35)

process of walking

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Brock University
Dirk De Clercq

Outline of Lecture 03 (01-08 A; Ruff) Gait Gait: process of walking I. Phases of Gait - Gait cycle = period from heel strike to heel strike of same limb - Components: Stance phase (heel strike, flat foot, toe off) + swing phase - 62% gait cycles is stance, 38% is swing PER LEG - 25% of gait cycle has double support (double support ↓ as speed ↑) - Transfer of weight during stance is along lateral side of foot across ball to hallux - Sustentaculum tali: calcaneus shelf above flexor hallucis longus tendon on medial side of foot; give straight line of action II. Ballistic model of gait - Lower limb forms inverted pendulum; most of gait is passive rocking over stance leg - Max. gait speed determined by height of limb and gravity - Walking is very efficient (~60-70% energy recovery; total energy relatively constant) - KE: supplied by “pushing off” (mostly gastrocnemius and soleus) - PE: peaks during “rock-over” phase - Total E remains ~ constant - Must break into running at lower speeds when going uphill, and vice versa; energy efficiency of walking ↓ as speed ↑ III. Mechanisms to minimize displacement of body center of gravity - With no mechanisms:Compass Gait-see large changes in body center of gravity - Pelvic rotation: internal to external (raises lowest pt) - Plantarflexion: smoothes transition (raise lowest point) - Pelvic tilt and knee flexion on swing leg (lower highest point) - Knee flexion on stance leg (lower highest point) RESULT IS SMOOTH RIDE FOR BODY’S CENTER OF GRAVITY IV. Muscles used during gait - Functions: Provide acceleration during toe-of
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